By: Juliette Gordon Low, Agnes Smyth Baden-Powell, and
Parts IV - VI
Girl Scouts should do everything in their power to make and keep their homes healthy as well as happy.
Most of you cannot choose your own dwelling, but whether you live in a house, a cottage, a flat, in rooms, or even in one room of a house, you can do a very great deal to keep it healthy and pure.Fresh air is your great friend; it will help you to fight disease better than anything else. Open all your windows as often as you can, so that the air may get into every nook and corner. Never keep an unused room shut up. You know what a stagnant pool is like—no fresh water runs through it, it is green and slimy, and full of insects and dead things; you would not care to bathe in it. Well, still and stuffy air in a house is very much worse, only, unluckily, its dangers cannot be seen, but they are there lying in ambush for the ignorant person. Disease germs, poisonous gases, mildew, insects, dust, and dirt have it all their own way in stale, used-up air.You do not like to wash in water other people have used, but it is far worse to breathe air other people have breathed. Air does not flow in and flow out of the same opening at the same time any more than water does, so you want two openings in a room—an open window. to let the good air in, and a fireplace and chimney to let the stale air out, or, where there is no fireplace, a window open both at top and bottom. The night air in large towns is purer than the day air, and both in town and country you should sleep with your window open if you want to be healthy. Draughts are not good, as they carry away the heat from your body too fast; so if your bed is too near the window, put up a shelter between it and the open window, and cover yourself more. At least one window on a staircase or landing should always be kept open, and also the larder and the closet windows.TidinessMotto: " Tidy As You Go. "Half your time will be saved if little things are kept tidy. Have a place for everything, and have everything in its place. If you are not sure which is the right place for a thing, think " Where, if I wanted it, should I go to look for it?" That place is the right one. Get into the habit of always", making hanks of any string you get, and keep them.War must be waged against rats and mice, or they will multiply and loot everything. If you have no mouse-traps, put a newspaper over a pail of water, break a hole slightly in the center in the form of a star, and place a bit of herring or cheese on the center tips of star to entice the mouse. Let the paper reach to the floor, not too upright, for the mouse to climb up. Try putting broken camphor into their holes; they dislike the smell. Fly and wasp traps are made by tying paper over a tumbler half-filled with water and beer or treacle. Break a hole in the paper, and fit in a tube of rolled paper about one inch long and one inch across.Try to keep yourself neat, and see that the house you live in is clean, sweet, and pleasant.
When you find that the ground round a tree is strewn with tiny chips of wood you may know at a glance that a woodpecker is making her nest there. The woodpecker chips away the bark and makes a deep hollow in the trunk. But she has sense enough to know that the chips which fall are tell-tales, so you may see her making efforts to tidy up the place, and in the end she will go to the trouble of flying away with every little chip and scrap in her beak to a distance, so that no enemy can see that she has been cutting a hole in that tree.
Dampness is never healthful, but you can prevent it to a great extent by letting plenty of fresh air go through your house and rooms.
When you see signs of damp, try to find out the cause; it may be put right. A pipe or gutter may have got blocked, or there may be a loose slate, or the water pipes may be leaking.In countries where there are mosquitoes people are very careful not to allow ,any water to lie near their houses, for the poisonous mosquito breeds in stagnant water. Sunflowers planted near a house help to keep the soil dry; also low bushes and plants. Consumption and other deadly disease germs flourish in damp, ill-aired houses.Sunlight is a great health-giver and disinfectant, and the more of it you have in your house the better. Long ago people used to shut out the sun and air for fear their curtains and carpets would fade, but it is far better that the sun should fade your curtains than that the darkness should fade you. Cases of consumption are rare in dry, sunny houses.Nurseries and bedrooms should have plenty of morning and midday sun.Cleanliness in every part of the house is most necessary, especially in kitchens and larders. Do not let dust or rubbish collect anywhere, behind furniture or pictures, under beds, or in cupboards. If we realized what horrid things we may collect from pavement or street dust on our skirts and boots, we should be much more careful about the dusting of our rooms.Do not allow dogs, cats, or birds to be where they can touch your food or your cooking utensils; animals have diseases too. Flies, gnats, and fleas are most dangerous pests; they feed on decayed and diseased things, and may carry poison on their feet, and leave it on your food. Keep them out of your house, and especially chase them out of your kitchen and larder. Any bad smell in a house is a danger signal; find out its cause, and get rid of it.Be sure your drinking water is pure. If you are at all doubtful about it boil it well—that is, for not less than fifteen minutes. Water cisterns should be often cleaned out. See that all drains, sinks, and closets are in good order. A very poisonous gas called sewer-gas comes from bad drains, and typhoid, diphtheria, etc., are caused by bad drinking water and bad drainage. The gas does not come up if there is a "trap" full of water in the pipe; that is a curve in the pipe where water collects. Let water run down all sinks once or twice a day to rinse the pipes. To sum up, Mrs. Benson says: "Remember that nearly all the dangers to health in a house or room begin with a D, and these dangers or destroyers are:
Doubtful drinking water
Against these destroyers, which bring debility, disease, and even death, the Scouts' defenses are:
Exercises and their Object
The best results of exercise are to be had outdoors from the activity of vigorous games. Some of us are so placed that we cannot have daily recreation outdoors and it becomes necessary to give our bodies some type of activity to keep them normal. More than half the weight of the body is made up of muscular tissue. If this muscle is not used the health of the whole body is affected. Exercise is a necessary condition of health, just as food and sleep are. The body is very responsive to the demands made upon it. In fact, each one of us can mold her own body, very much as a sculptor fashions a statue. This is done by giving the body proper care and the right forms of activity. A weak, infirm physique is nothing less than a crime. It is the duty of each one of us, both for our own sakes, and for the benefit of future generations, to perfect our physical frame. It is a duty to be strong and beautiful in body as well as in mind and spirit.
Always breathe through the nose. Fifty years ago Mr. Catlin wrote a book called Shut your Mouth and Save your Life, and he showed how the Red Indians for a long time had adopted that method with their children to the extent of a cruel habit of tying up their jaws at night, to ensure breathing through the nostrils.
Breathing through the nose prevents germs of disease getting from the air into the throat and stomach; it also prevents a growth in the back of the throat called "adenoids, " which reduce the breathing capacity of the nostrils, and also cause deafness.
By keeping the mouth shut you prevent yourself from getting thirsty when you are doing hard work. The habit of breathing through the nose prevents snoring. Therefore practice keeping your mouth shut and breathing through your nose.
A Scout must be able to hear well. The ears are very delicate, and once damaged are apt to become incurably deaf. No sharp or hard instrument should be used in cleaning the ear. The drum of the ear is a very delicate, tightly stretched skin which is easily damaged. Very many children have had the drums of their ears permanently injured by getting a box on the ear.
A Scout, of course, must have particularly good eyesight; she must be able to see anything very quickly, and to see it a long way off. By practicing yowr eyes in looking at things at a great distance they will grow stronger. While you are young you should save your • eyes as much as possible, or they will not be strong when you get older; therefore avoid reading by lamplight or in the dusk, and also sit with your back or side to the light •when doing any work during the day; if you sit facing the light it strains your eyes.
The strain of the eyes is a very common failure with growing girls, although very often they do not know it, and headaches come most frequently from the eyes being strained; frowning on the part of a girl is very generally a sign that her eyes are being strained. Reading in bed brings headaches.
Bad teeth are troublesome, and are often the cause of neuralgia, indigestion, abscesses, and sleepless nights.
Good teeth depend greatly on how you look after them when you are young. Attention to the first set of teeth keeps the mouth healthy for the second teeth, which begin to come when a child is seven and these will last you to the end of your life, if you keep them in order.
If one tooth is allowed to decay, it will spread decay in all the others, and this arises from scraps of food remaining between the teeth and decaying there.
A thorough Scout always brushes her teeth inside and outside and between all, just the last thing at night as well as other times, so that no food remains about them to decay. Scouts in camps or in the wilds of the jungle cannot always buy tooth-brushes, but should a tiger or a crocodile have borrowed yours, you can make your teeth just as bright and white as his are by means of a frayed-out dry, clean stick.
Learn how to make camp tooth-brushes out of sticks. Slippery elm or "dragonroot" sticks for cleaning teeth can be got at chemists' shops as samples.
Measurement Of The Girl
It is of paramount importance to teach the young citizen to assume responsibility for her own development and health.
Physical drill is all very well as a disciplinary means of development, but it does not give the girl any responsibility in the matter.It is therefore deemed preferable to tell each girl, according to her age, what ought to be her height, weight, and various measurements (such as chest, waist, arm, leg, etc.). She is then measured, and learns in which points she fails to come up to the standard. She can then be shown which exercises to practice for herself in order to develop those particular points. Encouragement must afterwards be given by periodical measurements, say every three months or so.
Cards can be obtained from the "Girl Scouts" Office, which, besides giving the standard measurements for the various ages, give columns to be filled, in periodically, showing the girl's re-measurements and progress in development. If each girl has her card it is a great incentive to her to develop herself at odd times when she has a few minutes to spare.
Fill in this page quarterly, the progress shown should be a useful incentive.
Games to Develop Strength
Skipping, rowing, fencing, swimming, tennis, and handball are all valuable aids to developing strength.
Use also — Staff exercises, to music if possible. Maze and spiral; follow-my-leader, done at a jog-trot in the open air. A musical accompaniment when possible. If done indoors, all the windows in the room must be kept open top and bottom. Sing the tune.
Flags — Choose sides; each player lays down a flag or a handkerchief at her own goal, and each side tries to capture the flags of the other; once she touches the opponent's flag she cannot be taken prisoner, but goes back with the flag to her side. Players can rescue a prisoner by touching her in prison. Players should keep moving as much as possible all the time, and try to evade being captured. Practice throwing at a mark. Put a pebble on the top of a staff and stand at a certain line so many paces off.
Morris dances (old English country dances) and the folk-songs.
Endurance is Useful
Have you not often heard of accidents on the ice? In the winter of 1895 some schoolgirls were sliding on a frozen canal, when one girl twelve years old ventured into the middle. Then there was an ominous cracking, and in a moment she was struggling in water many feet deep.
Miss Alice White, a teacher, happened to witness the accident. Notwithstanding the warnings of several persons standing on the towing-path, who assured her it was most dangerous, she at once went on the ice and approached as close to the hole as she dared with safety. She then lay down at full length, so as to more equally distribute her weight, and tried to seize the struggling child. But under her weight the ice broke, and the brave girl was precipitated into the cold water. The bystanders shouted to her to forsake the child, and at least save her own life, but she did nothing of the kind. She held on to her precious burden, and literally fought her way out. Piece after piece of the ice broke off, but she at length reached the bank in a state of great exhaustion. Her hands were cut in many places by the sharp ice, but they were wounds of which any one might well have been proud. Miss White was only sixteen years old, and it was the second time she had saved a life.
Laying a pole or a branch across the hole is a good plan.
An Easy Way to Grow Strong
It is possible for any girl, even though she may be small and weak, to make herself into a strong and healthy woman if she takes the trouble to do a few body exercises every day. They take only about ten minutes, and do not require any kind of apparatus.
This should be practiced every morning, the first thing on getting up, and every evening before going to bed. A girl of ten years should weigh at least fifty pounds, the average height at that age being forty-nine inches. The value of this exercise is much increased if you think of the object of each move while you are doing it, and if you are very particular to breathe the air in through your nose. A great many people who are pale and ill are made so by living in rooms where the windows are seldom opened and the air is full of poisonous gases or germs. Open your windows, especially at the top, every day to let the foul air out.
Do not exercise immediately after eating; let your meal be digested.
Girls who have not done these exercises before should begin them gradually with care, bit by bit, doing more every day. Brush your hair, clean your teeth, wash out your mouth and nose, drink a cup of cold water, and then go on with the following exercises.
It is best to carry these out with as few clothes on as possible, either in the open air or close to an open window. The movements should be executed vigorously.
Exercise I. Stand erect, hands at side.
Count 1. Bend knees deeply with trunk held vertical.
Count 2. Straighten knees and return to an erect position.
Count 3. Let the body fall directly forward until it reaches an angle of 45^degrees, advancing the left foot a long stride to catch the weight of the body, and bringing the closed hands to shoulders, palms forward, elbows close at side, shoulders drawn back and chest out.
Count 4. Bend at the waist without moving the legs and touch the floor with both hands.
Count 5. Return to the third position.
Count 6. Stand erect.
Repeat ten times, using first one foot, then the other. At the end of one week use this exercise fifteen times. Continue to increase the repetitions by fives each week until you can do thirty.
Exercise II. - Take five deep breaths, inhaling and exhaling, filling the lower part of the chest, and at the end of the breath expelling all the air you can.
Exercise I. - Run in place, that is go through the movements of running without gaining ground, twenty steps, rest a minute and do fifty counts.
Exercise II. - Lying on the back, hands at side, raise the body and touch the toes with both hands, ten times.
Count 1. Charge sideways, raising the arms sideways to a vertical position.
Count 2. Bend and twist to the left, touching the floor with both hands on the left side of the foot.
Counts 3 and 4. Make the return movements.
Repeat ten times in each direction.
Exercise IV. - Deep breathing eight times.
Exercise I. - Bend knees deeply, fifteen times.
Exercise II. - Lying face downward, hands at side, raise the head and chest from the floor as far as possible.
Exercise III. - Lying face downward, head resting on the folded arms, raise each leg upward and backward from the hip with straight knee, ten times.
Exercise IV. - Lying on the back, hands under head, raise both legs with straight knees to a vertical position, toes pointed upward, ten times.
Exercise V. - Charge obliquely forward left, arms in line with the body and rear leg; touch the floor and return, making it a four-count exercise. Repeat ten times in each direction.
Exercise VI. - Run in place for one minute, rest and repeat.
Exercise VII. - Take ten deep breaths.
Every Girl Scout is as much a "hussif " as she is a girl. She is sure to have to "keep house" some day, and whatever house she finds herself in, it is certain that that place is the better for her being there.Too many odds and ends and draperies about a room are only dust-traps, and rugs or carpet squares, which can be taken up easily, are better than nailed down carpets. Keep all the furniture clean and bright. Fresh air, soap, and water are the good housewife's best allies. Bars of soap should be cut up in squares, and kept for six weeks before being used. This hardens it, and makes it last longer.
In scrubbing boarded floors, the secret is not to deluge the floor; change the water in the pail frequently.
In the work of cleaning, think out your plan beforehand, so as not to dirty what has been cleaned. Plan certain times for each kind of work, and have your regular days for doing each thing.
Paste-boards And Deal Tables. Scrub hard the way of the grain. Hot water makes boards and tables yellow. Rinse in cold water, and dry well.
Saucepans - New saucepans must not be used till they have first been filled with cold water and a little soda, and boiled for an hour or so, and must be well scoured. After basins or saucepans have been used fill them at once with cold water to the brim; this will prevent anything hardening on the saucepan, and will make cleaning easier.
Needlework - "A stitch in time saves nine." We cannot agree with this favorite saying, because it saves so many more than nine, besides saving time and preventing untidiness.Tailors, who are such neat workers, will say that they never pin their work first. If you are not a tailor, it is much better to place your work, before you begin, with plenty of pins. You will never get straight lines or smooth corners if you do not plan and place it all first, just as it has got to be, and tack it there.Have you noticed that thread is very fond of tying itself into a bow; but this can be prevented by threading the cotton into the needle before you cut it off the reel, making your knot a the end you cut.
In rough measures one inch, is equivalent to the distance across a twenty-five-cent piece, and a yard is from nose to thumb, a^ far as you can reach. Needlework is good for all of us it rests and calms the mind. You can think peacefully over all the worries of Europe whilst you are stitching. Sewing generally solves all the toughest problems, chiefly other peoples'.
Pillow lace needs a little more attention, but is a lovely art which girls can easily master. The writer was taught to make the flowers of Honiton lace by a little Irish girl, and the variations you can invent are endless. You would find a good sale for insertion lace of the Torchon patterns. Make your own pillow, and buy some cheap bobbins to begin learning with, and do not try fine work at first. Learn to spin wool and thread; a spinster can earn money in this way.
The Girl Scouts' Patch
We don't know whether you ever did such a thing as burn a hole in your dress, but we have, and if it is in the front, oh, dear! what will mother say. Now, there is a very good way that Girl Scouts have of making it all fifth and serviceable; they put in a piece and darn it in all round. If possible, get a piece of the same stuff, then it will not fade a different tint, and will wear the same as the rest. You may undo the hem and cut out a bit, or perhaps you may have some scraps left over from cutting out your dress.
The piece must be cut three or four inches larger than the hole, and frayed out on all four sides. Trim the hole with your scissors neatly all round quite square with the thread. Then lay your piece over the hole— of course on the back or "wrong side"—and tack it there with cotton. Now take a darning needle, and thread each thread in turn, and darn each one into the stuff. If the ends of stuff are very short, it is best to run your needle in and out where you are going to darn, and then, before pulling it through, thread it with the wool. This patching is excellent for table-linen.
We once had an aunt who was a thorough old Scout, and was rather proud of her mending. She always said that she didn't mind what colored cotton you gave her to sew with, because her stitches hardly ever showed, they were so small, and also she put them inside the stuff. If she was putting on a patch to blue stuff, she could do it with red cotton, and you would never have noticed it on the right side; her stitches were all under the edge. Or else she sewed it at the back, on the wrong side, so that it looked perfectly neat.
If you are not able to match the wool for a darn, it is a good plan to use the ravelings of the stuff itself. Sometimes, away in the country, you can't go to a shop and you have nothing like the piece you want to mend. A Scout would turn it inside out and undo a little of the hem, and ravel out the edge. Suppose you were to cut a hole in the front of your blue serge skirt; if you darn it with the ravelings of the turnings of the seam or the hem, that will be exactly the same color and the same thickness as your dress. No wool you could buy would match as well. Or if you want to mend a jersey or knitted gloves, you never could buy such a good match— the same sized wool and the tints.
Damask table-cloths should be darned to match the pattern, following the flowers of the design, and large holes may be mended like the "Scouts' Patch" just described. To sew on buttons properly, leave them loose enough for the iron to push. On washing articles have your threads long enough to make a little stalk to the button, which is wound round before finishing. Your needle should be sloped out to all sides, so as to take up fresh stuff farther out than the holes in the button.
Scouts may make many useful presents in their spare time, such as cretonne covered blotters or frames, mittens, warm felt slippers (for which woolly soles can be bought), pen-wipers, pin-cushions, and needle-books. They could also make articles for their hospitals, such as night-clothing, soft caps, handkerchiefs, pillow-cases, and dusters.
There is a legend in Turkey that when a rich man is engaged to marry a lady he can break it off if she is not able to cook him a dish of dates in a different way every day for a whole month. A friend of ours did somewhat the same in trying a new cook; he always tested them with nothing but cutlets for a fortnight. The real test of a good cook is to see how little food she wastes. She uses up all the scraps, and old bits of bread are baked for making puddings and for frying crumbs; she sees that nothing goes bad, and she also buys cleverly. Those who do not understand cookery waste money.
Perfect cleanliness and neatness should be insisted on, or your food will be bad and unwholesome.
Is an egg lighter or heavier when cooked? An experienced cook is experienced in eggs. There are "new laid" eggs which are fresh and "fresh" eggs which are not; there are "cooking" eggs which are liable to squeak. Eggs are safe in their shells, and think you don't know whether they are fresh or not, or whether they, are raw. Any egg can be thrown out of a first floor window on to the lawn without the shell breaking; it falls like a cat, right end upwards, and this is not a boiled egg, either! You can tell that because it will not spin on the table, so it must have been a raw egg. A cooked egg would spin. To tell a stale egg, you will see it is more transparent at the thick end when held up to the light.Fresh eggs are more transparent in the middle. Very bad eggs will float in a pan of water.
Break each egg separately into a cup. When your water is boiling fast, drop in an egg sharply. Use a large deep pan, with salt and vinegar in the water. Lift the egg very carefully in a ladle before it is set too hard. Place the eggs all round a soup plate, pour over them a nice sauce made with flour and butter, a little milk, and some grated cheese and salt.
Examine the meat before you accept it. If you do not know the looks of good meat, you should go to a butcher's shop, and ask the butcher to show you how to know it. Much gristle is a sign of old age. You can easily tell if meat smells disagreeable. Beef should be of a bright red color, and juicy and elastic. The fat should be firm and of a pale straw color. Mutton should feel dryish, and the fat look white. All papers must be taken off at once. The feet of fowls should be soft and flexible, not dry, and the skin of the back should not be discolored.
A most unwholesome food is stale fish. The gills, if fresh, should be bright red. Tinned fish is often poisonous. Fish is a food which you can get more good from, considering the price, than if you bought meat, and the most nourishing fish is one of the cheapest—that is, the herring. Pieces of fish, buttered, can be deliriously steamed or baked if laid between two plates over a saucepan of water.
Oats, too, are full of value; a pound and a half a day will keep a hard-working man, for oatmeal increases the power of the muscles, and is rich in bone and flesh forming materials. What you can get out of oats for 10 cents would cost you #1.00 in lean beef. Oats give increased mental vigor and vitality, as they have so much nerve and brain nourishment in them. Oatmeal should be kept fresh in a shut tin.
If you think your brain requires a fillip, eat plenty of haricot beans, but they must be very much cooked, and should be well buttered. Frumenty is good too. •
Beef and mutton, when underdone, are more easily digested than when cooked through. Roasting and grilling of meat is done over so hot a fire outside that the juices are kept in. The meat has to be frequently turned to prevent it burning, but allow plenty of salt to melt into the meat with the dripping, or it will taste just as good as a sole of a boot.
As Mr. Holding said: "The only method I know of for properly making your meat thoroughly indigestible is to hurry a stew."
To stew or braise any meat or fowl you must leave .it long on the stove and cook it slowly. Then put in flavoring vegetables, bacon, herbs, and a little stock, and by the time you have done a day's work you will find a dish fit for a king. Even tough meat can be made delicious in this way, so long as it never gets near boiling, and is closely covered. This is a case of "Sow hurry, and you reap indigestion."
Of vegetables we would like to say they can scarcely be cooked too much. Wash well in salted water; let leafy ones have a swim to get rid of grasshoppers and caterpillars and sand, then put them into boiling salted water, and take off the lid. Roots may be allowed lids. Peel and slice your onions under water, or at a tap. I once watched a grand chef cooking potatoes, and he told me that the best of the potato lies next the skin, so he never cuts it, but he peels his potatoes on a fork after boiling. The cunning cook boils a bunch of mint with the potatoes. Excellent food for workers are parsnips, beets, or onions.
If you want the meat and not the juice, you should have your pot boiling fast when the meat is put in. But if you want gravy or beef-tea (not meat), put your meat into cold water, and bring it slowly to the boil.
Stock Pot. Keep a pot going all day, into which you can put any broken-up bones or scraps left over, to make nourishing broth. Clean turnips, carrots, and onions improve it. Before using let it get cold, so as to skim off the fat. Barley, rice, or tapioca may be added, and for flavoring, add salt, pepper, chopped parsley, celery, a clove, or mace.
Milk will take the flavor of any strong smell near it. Stale milk added to fresh will turn the whole of it sour. Sour milk need not be wasted. You can use it for baking or cooking, by adding bicarbonate of soda. Sour milk will clean ink or fruit stains, and in washing it bleaches linen. Yellowed linen should soak in it, so should spoons and forks. Sour milk cleanses oil-cloth as well as women's faces and hands. Chickens and turkeys get fat and lay better for being fed on it.
To Weigh roughly, tie a loop of string to your packet of tea, sugar, etc., and pass it on to your first finger. Three pounds is as much as one can hold on the nail. If the loop is shifted to the root of the nail, four pounds is all one can hold. If the string is placed on the first joint, we find the parcel weighs seven pounds. Each person will be different, but you can find out your own power of lifting, and then you will know exactly for the future.
Boiling water is useful to dip your sardine into if you want to get his skin off. But do not dip him into the tea-kettle. To cut very new bread easily, you should put the knife into a jug of boiling water. Cooking in water mostly spoils food, except greens. Water was never meant to cook with. Water does pretty well for washing in, also as a means of steaming a pan; but if you use it for cooking in, it washes out all the flavor. Cook your food in a covered earthenware jar, standing in water in a covered saucepan.
A problem for cooks is to solve: "What articles cost less after they are manufactured than the raw material costs?" Flour is more expensive than the bread made from it. Cream is more expensive per pint than the butter made from it.
The true artist in omelets is one who beats her -eggs with a knife on a plate till they are so firm that, on turning the plate upside down, the whites keep sticking to it. A beginner told me she used often to let them drop on the floor; but such was her patience and perseverance that she scraped up all the egg onto the plate again, and continued beating. That is not really necessary for a good omelet.To make a really good rice pudding let the rice soak in the milk for many hours. The slower it is cooked the better. Condensed milk is a good substitute for cream. How to make "crusps."—Put aside any very thin slices of bread (or bread and butter) on the mantelpiece, and in two days they will become delicious "crusps," sweeter and more wholesome than fresh bread.
Kumyss(An invalid can retain kumyss when she fails to digest every other nourishment.) To one quart of fresh milk, add two tablespoonfuls of sour milk solidified (Or clabber). Let it stand in a china jar or pitcher, lightly covered with a napkin, for twelve hours.
It will then be solidified. Take some clean vessel, a pitcher is best—pour the mixture from one vessel to another holding them about % of a yard apart, so the air can strike the milk as it goes down. Pour until the mixture is well broken up (six or eight times) and as smooth as cream. Set aside again in the clean pitcher as before, for twelve hours, then repeat the pouring process. After twelve hours more repeat pouring. It is then done.
HINTS TO HOUSEKEEPERSHow To Clean Wire Window Screens
Rub down with Kerosene oil outside and inside.
Three Primary Colors are, Red, Blue and Yellow*
One quart of turpentine to one quarter (}4) pound of beeswax. Warm, taking care not to let any fire reach the turpentine. Rub in the floor with flannel and polish with hard brush. A little powdered burnt umber mixed in gives a nice brown stain.
To Put Away FlannelsFirst thoroughly air and beat them, then wrap up with cedar chips, refuse tobacco, or camphor, and wrap in newspapers, being careful to close every outlet to keep out moths.
The Babcock test is a test for determining the butter fat in milk.
Bottles are devised which are known as Babcock milk bottles, and are registered to show the per cent. of fat in milk. A certain amount of milk is mixed with a certain amount of Commercial Sulphuric acid of a specific gravity l.8j which is added by degrees and thoroughly shaken up with the milk. Enough distilled water is added to fill the bottle. The mixture is then centrifuged in a Babcock Centrifuge, and the centrifuged fat read in per cent, on the neck of the bottle.The Official Travelers' Babcock Test can be purchased from the Creamery Package Manufactory Co., Chicago III., and costs between $5.00 and $6.00. All utensils used in dairy work should be sterilized by steaming or boiling for five minutes.
How to Cure Hams
Rub one tablespoonful of Salt petre into the face of each ham; let it remain one day. Literally cover the ham with salt and pack it in a closed box. Leave it in box as many days as there are pounds to the ham. Take it out, wash in warm water; cover the face of the ham with black pepper, and smoke ft ten days with green hickory or red-oak chips.Care of ChildrenMrs. Benson writes: "There is no way in which a girl can help her country better than by fitting herself to undertake the care of children. She should learn all she can about them, and take every opportunity of helping to look after these small Girl Scouts and Boy Scouts of the future."
An infant cannot tell you its wants, but a Scout with a knowledge of the needs of children, what to feed them on, and the rules for good health, may save many a baby, for she never knows how soon the precious gift of some child's life may be placed in her hands.
Baby does not know that fire will burn, or that water will drown one, so you need to guard him. Baby requires the proper food to build up a healthy body. He prefers milk for the first months of his life, and even up till three years old he takes mostly milk; and as a baby cannot digest flour, bread, corn-flour, and such things are so much poison to him. They may injure a little baby's health for life. As has been said to older children, let him keep quiet after eating. Even up to three years old, Baby's food must be chiefly milk—biscuits, puddings, and fruit being gradually added. He is very particular about his milk being fresh and good. Baby is extremely punctual. He feels it keenly if you do not feed him at the fixed hour, and will very likely let you know it, and woe betide you if he finds out that you have not properly scalded out his bottle before and after each meal.
When his digestion is not right, his appetite will not be so good. Digestion means that the food you eat is turned into muscle and brain and bone.
We eat onions to make bone, and oats to make brain, but Baby must not be allowed such food till he is older. What is indigestion? It means not only uncomfortable pains in the middle of the night, but also that you have not used up the food you ate, and that food is going bad inside you, and making bad blood. Eat only the foods that you know you can digest comfortably. Do not give Baby too much at a time, or he will not be able to digest it, and keep him to plain food.
Sun and air are life-giving. Put a pale withering plant or human being into the sun, and each will recover health. Give a baby plenty of fresh air, out of doors if you can, but avoid draughty places. Air the rooms well. You know, too, that the air inside the bed-clothes is impure, so do not let Baby sleep with his head under the sheet; tuck it in under his chin. You remember what air did in curing illness in the case of the expressman's children. He had two boys and three little girls all beginning to have consumption, and constantly requiring a doctor at great expense. He got the happy idea of putting them all into his cart when he started out very early on his work, and he drove them about every morning till school time. Every one of them soon got welL and became strong and healthy.
No one can be healthy unless she is extremely clean. Baby will want his bath daily, with soap and warmish water. He likes to kick the water and splash, as long as you support his head. Before starting on this swimming expedition, you should have all his clothes, warm, by you, and all that you will want must be within reach, and he expects a warm flannel on your knees to he ort. You must carefully dry all the creases in his fat body for him, with a soft towel.
What will you do when you suddenly find that baby is ill. Call in the doctor? Yes—that is, if there is one. But when there is no doctor! You will at once think of all the First Aid you have learnt, and what you know of nursing.Drugs are bad things. You may ruin a child by giving it soothing drugs and advertised medicines. They sometimes produce constipation. Never neglect the bowels if they become stopped, or you may bring on inflammation. Children's illnesses often are brought on by damp floors; you can trace them to the evening that the boards were washed. A flood of water could not dry without damping the room and the children.Bowed legs come from walking too soon. It does baby good to lie down and kick about, for crawling and climbing exercise his muscles.
The best remedy, if you find a child suffering from convulsions, is to place it in a warm bath, as hot as your bare elbow can endure.
Childhood is the time to form the body; it cannot be altered when you are grown up.Clothing
Children's clothes should be warm but light, and the feet and legs should be kept warm and dry. To put on their stockings, turn the toe in a little way, and poke the toes into the end, then pull over a little at a time, instead of putting the foot in at the knee of the stocking. Put the left stocking on the right foot next day, so as to change them every day.
Flannelette is made of cotton, so it is not warm like wool, and it catches fire easily, as cotton-wool does. Rubber is most unhealthful, and causes paralysis. Don't sit on rubber or on oilcloth unless covered, and never put rubber next to the skin.
To convert a given number of degrees Fahrenheit into Centigrade, deduct 32, multiply by 5, and divide by 9. To convert into Reaumur, deduct 32, multiply by 4, and divide by 9. To convert degrees Centigrade into Fahrenheit, multiply by 9, divide by 5, and add 32. To convert Reaumur into Fahrenheit, multiply by 9, divide by 4, and add 32.
The diagram shows corresponding degrees.
Beat of Pulse per minute
Pulse beat for normal person: Infant before age of one year, 130 to 115 beats per minute. Infant up to two years of age, 115 to 130 beats per minute. Adult, 70 to 80 beats per minute. Adult in old age, 70 to 60 in normal health.
First AidThe National Red Cross Society award certificates in First Aid to girls over sixteen years old only, but any Girl Scout can win the Girl Scout Ambulance badge by passing an examination on the first three chapters of the Woman's Edition of the Red Cross Abridged Text-Book on First Aid.
This training of the Girl Scouts awakens taste for hospital work. The scope of this book is insufficient for a complete course of instruction in hospital work, so it is best for the leaders to have lectures, lessons, and demonstrations. There is danger in a "little knowledge" of such an important subject. So we shall only say that the one important Scout precept of obeying orders is in a hospital of paramount importance. Disobedience is certainly a crime.
Slight nosebleed does not require treatment; no harm results from it. When severe nosebleed occurs, loosen the collar (do not blow the nose), apply cold to the back of the neck by means of a key or a cloth wrung out in cold water; a roll of paper under the upper lip between it and the gum will help; when bleeding still continues shove a cotton or a gauze plug into the nostrils leaving it there until the bleeding stops.
Dust, flies, or cinder in the eye. Get the person's head well back, seize the upper eyelash and pull the upper lid well forward over the lower, press it against the latter as it slips back into place, and if the fly is beneath the upper lid it will be left on the lower lid. If this fails, place a match on the upper eyelid, catch the eyelashes and turn the lid over the match, and if you can see the cause of the trouble remove it with the corner of a handkerchief or use a camel's-hair brush. A drop of castor-oil in the eye soothes it afterwards. For lime in the eye use a weak solution of vinegar and water.
FIRST AID TO INJURED
Fire constitutes a danger, especially if there is a panic where the fire starts. Never throw away a lighted match, it may fall on inflammable material and start fire. Reading in bed is dangerous, as if you go to sleep the bed-clothes may catch fire. If you must dry your clothes by a fire watch them carefully.
Cut away all dry grass around a fire in camp.
Never carry a light into a room that smells strongly of escaped gas; never handle gunpowder with matches in your pocket.
How to Put out Fire
If your clothing catches fire don't run for help, that will fan the flames; lie down, roll up in an overcoat or rug. If nothing can be found to roll about you, roll over slowly beating out the flames with your hands. If another person is on fire throw him on the ground and smother the fire with a rug away from the face.
What to Do in Case of Fire
Show coolness and presence of mind; throw water (a few bucketfuls will often put out the fire), or blankets, woolen clothing, sand, ashes, dirt, or even flour on fire.
If you discover a fire sound the alarm on the street fire-alarm post, or telephone to the Fire Department. The doors of a house or a room that is on fire should be closed to prevent draughts spreading the flames.
While searching a burning house tie a wet handkerchief over the nose and mouth. Remember that within six inches of the floor there is no smoke; when you have difficulty in breathing, crawl along the floor with the head low, dragging any one you have rescued behind you. Tie the insensible person's hands together and put them over your head. You can then crawl along the floor dragging the rescued person with you.
Never jump from the window unless the flames are so close that it is your only means of escape. If outside a burning building put mattresses and bedding piled high to break the jumper's fall and get a strong rug to hold, to catch the jumper, and let many people hold the rug. In country districts organize a bucket brigade; two lines of girls from water to fire—pass buckets, jugs, tumblers, or anything that will hold water from girl to girl and throw water on the fire, passing buckets back by another line of girls.Rescue from DrowningThere are four practical methods of bringing a drowning person to land.I. If quiet, turn him on his back, and grip him by the head so that the palms of the hands cover the ears, and swim on the back. Keep his face above water (Fig. 1).
3. If the arms are difficult to grasp, push your arms under those of the subject, bend them upwards, and place your hands, with the fingers separated, flat on his chest, the thumbs resting on his Fig 3 shoulder joints. Swim on the back
(Fig• 3)•.4. In rescuing a swimmer with cramp or exhausted, or a drowning person who is obedient and remains quiet, the person assisted must place his hands on the rescuer's shoulders close to the neck at arm's length, turn on his back, and lie perfectly still with the head well back. Here the rescuer is uppermost; and, having his arms and legs free, swims with the breast stroke. This is the easiest method, and enables the rescuer to carry the person a longer distance without much exertion (Fig. 4).
ReleaseA drowning person will sometimes grip his would-be rescuer in such a manner as to render it impossible to tow him to land. The three following methods are recommended for releasing oneself when clutched by a drowning person.
I. When the rescuer is grasped by the wrists: Extend the arms straightforward, bring them down until they are in a line with the hips, and then jerk the wrists against the thumbs of the subject. This will break the hold (Figs. 5 and 6).
3. When the rescuer is clasped round the body: Take a deep breath and lean well over as before. Place the left hand on the subject's right shoulder and the right palm on his chin. At the same time bring the right knee against the lower part of his chest. Then by means of a strong and sudden push, stretch your arms and leap straight out, throwing the whole weight of your body backwards (Fig. 8).Artificial Respiration
When a person is brought to land in an apparently drowned condition lose no time in attempting restoration. Delay may prove fatal. Act at once and work with caution, continuous energy, and perseverance. Life has, in many cases, been restored after long hours of unceasing work. In all cases send for a doctor as soon as possible. Meanwhile proceed at once to clear the water out of the patient's lungs. The following method is the simplest and is called the Schafer system, after the inventor. Incline the patient face downwards and the head downwards, so that the water may run out of his mouth, and pull his tongue forward. After running the water out of the patient, place him on his side with his body slightly hanging down, and keep the tongue hanging out. If he is breathing let him rest; if he is not breathing, you must at once endeavor to restore breathing artificially. Here are Professor Schafer's own instructions:
1. Lay the patient face downwards with arms extended and the face turned to the side.
2. Don't put a cushion or any support under the chest. Kneel or squat alongside or astride of the patient facingtow ards his head.
3. Place your hands on the small of the patient's back, one on each side, with thumbs parallel and nearly touching.
4. Bend forward with the arms straight, so as to allow the weight of your body to fall on your wrists, and then make a firm, steady downward pressure on the loins of the patient, while you count slowly, "one—two— three."
5. Then swing your body backward so as to relieve the pressure and without removing your hands, while you count slowly, "one—two."Continue this backward and forward movement, alternately relieving and pressing the patient's stomach against the ground in order to drive the air out of his chest and mouth, and allowing it to suck itself in again, until gradually the patient begins to do it for himself.
The proper pace for the movement should be about twelve pressures to the minute. As soon as the patient is breathing you can leave off the pressure ; but watch him, and if he Fig fails you must start again till he can breathe for himself.Then let him lie in a natural position and set to work to get him warm by putting hot flannels or bottles of hot water between his thighs, and under the arms and against the soles of his feet. Wet clothing should be taken of! and hot blankets rolled round him. The patient should be disturbed as little as possible and encouraged to sleep while carefully watched for at least an hour afterwards.
To rescue a person who has broken through the ice, you should first tic a rope around your own body and have the other end 1 icd or held in shore. Then get a long board or a ladder, or the limb of a tree, crawl out on this and push it out so that the person in the water may reach it. If nothing can be found on which to support your weight don't attempt to walk to the person to be rescued, but lie flat on your face and crawl out to him, thus so much less weight bears on the ice at one point than walking. Remember, if you break through the ice yourself, that if you try to crawl on the broken ice it will break again with you; better support yourself on edge of ice and await rescue.
Gas and Sewer Gas
Never go to sleep in a room where the gas is burning low. As gas may escape into the room, very big fires burning in sleeping rooms are dangerous, especially in charcoal stoves. In underground sewers and wells dangerous gases are found; if a lighted candle will not burn in such a place it is certain the air will be dangerous for any one entering it.In rescuing a person from a place filled with gas, take a few deep breaths before entering, carry him quickly out without breathing yourself. Gas will not be found near the floor of a building, so you may be able to crawl out where it would be dangerous to walk.Treating and Bandaging the InjuredA fracture is the same thing as a broken bone. When the bone pierces through the skin it is called a compound fracture. When it does not, a simple fracture. If you have to deal with a broken leg or arm, and can't get a doctor at once, make the patient lie down, place the broken member in same position as sound one, pile around it clothing to keep it in place.Place the leg in the same position as sound one, and hold it in splints made of anything that is stiff and rigid like a flat board (that is better than a round pole) or a limb broken from a tree. Shingles make excellent splints.In applying splints, they should extend beyond the next joint above and the next joint below the broken point. Otherwise the movement of the joint will cause the broken part to move.With a broken thigh, the splint should be very long, extending from armpit to below the feet; a short splint just below the knee will do for the inner splint.Splints may be tied on with handkerchiefs; tie firmly, but not so tight as to cause severe pain.In a fractured thigh it is well to bind the broken leg to the sound one by two or three pieces of cloth around both.The clothing around the leg makes a padding for the splints unless it is thin summer clothing, in which case straw and leaves should be put between the splint and the leg, or arm.Fractures of the leg and arm are treated the same way, with splints on inner and outer sides of broken bone.A sling will be required with fractures of the arm; this may be made with triangular bandage or triangular neck handkerchief or piece torn from your skirt or petticoat. Red Cross outfits are very convenient for injuries.
Compound FractureIf the sharp edges of the broken bone pierce through the skin, which often happens if splints are not well applied and the person moves, the broken bone again pierces the skin. If a wound is made by the broken bone, then the wound must be treated first.
Dressing WoundsAll wounds, unless protected from germs, are liable to become infected by matter or pus. Blood-poisoning or even death may result. To prevent infection of wound, a sterilized dressing should be applied; this is a surgical dressing which has been treated so that it is free from germs and can be got at any druggist's or can be had in First Aid outfits. Don't handle a wound with your hands, because even though your hands appear perfectly clean, they are not so; neither is water free from germs, so a wound should never be washed.
If you have no surgical dressing, boil a folded towel fifteen. minutes; don't touch the inner surface. Apply inner surface of the towel or a clean unused handkerchief to the wound.
How to Stop BleedingKeep a person quiet after severe bleeding from a wound as the bleeding may recommence, and give no stimulants unless patient is very weak. There are two kinds of blood—that which flows from arteries and the blood which flows from veins; the latter is of a dark color and flows in a steady stream and goes back to the heart. A* pad firmly tied on such a wound usually stops the bleeding.Don't be afraid of leaving a wound exposed to air as it holds no germs. When wounds bleed use Red Cross outfit as directed on slip contained in outfit.If an artery is cut a person may bleed to death in a few minutes. Girls should know that the blood from a cut artery is bright red and flows in spirts and jets.The chief arteries are in the throat. The artery in the upper arm is about in a line with the inner seam of the sleeve of your coat. The artery in the leg runs down from the center line from the point of the hip in the middle of the crotch in a line with the inseam of trousers.
Pressure should be applied by putting your fingers three inches above the crotch and holding it pressed against the bone. You can feel the artery beating under your fingers, but don't put your finger in the wound as it may infect the latter. While you hold the artery some one else should make a tourniquet easily improvised.
How to Make a Tourniquet
Tie a handkerchief loosely around the limb and place a cork or a smooth stone, just above your fingers on the artery. When this is placed, put a stick about a foot long under the handkerchief at the outer side of the limb and twist the stick so that the handkerchief gets tight enough to keep the stone or cork pressing on the artery just as your fingers did at f1rst. Tie the stick in position so it will not slip.Remember that cutting off the circulation for too long is dangerous; don't leave the tourniquet more than an hour. Loosen it and be ready to tighten it quickly if the bleeding recommences.
Another method to stay bleeding from an artery when the injury is below the knee or elbow is to place a pad in the bend and tie the arm or leg bent with the pad tight in the angle of the joint.
If an artery is cut at the throat, jam your fingers into the wound to stop the bleeding or the person may die instantly from loss of blood.
The best stimulant in cases where the patient is very weak is aromatic spirits of ammonia. One teaspoonful in a half-glass of water.
Ivy PoisoningAvoid poison oak or ivy. If poisoned use carbonized Vaseline or baking-soda and water made into a thick paste.
To Ease Itching of Midge-BitesFor midge and sand-fly bites use Listerine and Eucalyptus, equal quantities, or preparation sold by druggist. Frost-Bite
To prevent frost-bite, rub the body when exposed to cold with too little clothing on, because rubbing brings blood to the surface. When the part that was cold suddenly has no feeling, then to restore warmth rub it first with snow or cold water, then gradually with warm water; if hot water is applied at first it may cause mortification in the frozen part.
Runaway HorsesDon't try to check a runaway horse by standing in front and waving your arms. The horse only dodges you and runs faster. If you are athletic and quick you may try to run alongside the vehicle with your hand on the shaft to prevent yourself from falling, seize the reins with the other hand, and drag the horse's head towards you. If you can slow him down by this method you can turn him toward a wall or a house, and he will probably stop.
History of the Flag
On July 4, 1776, the Declaration of Independence was signed. By this the united colonies dissolved all the ties that bound them to England and became an independent nation, the United States. It was immediately necessary to adopt a new flag, as the new nation would not use the union jack. Congress appointed a committee, consisting of George Washington, Robert Morris, and Colonel Ross, to design a flag. They got Mrs. Betsey Ross, who kept an upholstery shop at 239 Arch Street, Philadelphia, to help plan and to make the new flag. They kept the thirteen stripes of the colonies' flag, and replaced the union jack by a blue field bearing thirteen stars, arranged in a circle. On June 14, 1777, Congress passed the resolution adopting this flag.Resolved: That the flag of the thirteen United States be thirteen stripes, alternate red and white: that the Union be thirteen stars, white on a blue field, representing a new constellation.George Washington said: "We take the star from Heaven, the red from our mother country, separating it by white stripes, thus showing that we have separated from her, and the white stripes shall go down to posterity representing liberty."This new flag was first carried into battle at Fort Stanwix, in August, 1777.At first when new States came into the Union, a new stripe and a new star were added to the flag, but it was soon evident that the added stripes would make it very unwieldy. So on April 4, 1818, Congress passed this act, to establish the flag of the United States.Sec. 1. Be it enacted, et0. That from and after the fourth day of July next, the flag of the United States be thirteen horizontal stripes, alternate red and white; that the Union have twenty stars, white in a blue field.
Sec. 2. Be it further enacted, that, on the admission of every new State into the Union, one star be added to the Union of the flag; and that such addition shall take effect on the fourth day of July succeeding such admission.In our flag today the thirteen stripes symbolize the thirteen original States, and the blue field bears forty-eight stars, one for each State in the Union. The five pointed star is used, it is said, at Betsey Ross's suggestion. This five-pointed star is the seal of King Solomon, and the sign of infinity. Even the colors of the flag mean something: red stands for valor, blue for justice, and white for purity. The whole flag stands for freedom, liberty, and justice.
Respect Due the Flag1. The flag should not be hoisted before sunrise nor allowed to remain up after sunset.
2. At retreat, sunset, civilian spectators should stand at attention and give the military salute.
3. When the national colors are passing on parade or review the spectators should, if walking, halt, and if sitting, rise and stand at attention and uncover.
4. When the flag is flown at half-mast as a sign of mourning it should be hoisted to full staff at the conclusion of the funeral. In placing the flag at half-mast, it should first be hoisted to the top of the staff and then be lowered to position. Preliminary to lowering from half-mast it should first be raised to top.
5. On Memorial Day, May 3Oth, the flag should fly at half-mast from sunrise till noon, and at full mast from noon to sunset.
The flag at half-mast is a sign of mourning. The flag flown upside down is a signal of distress.
AmericaThe first home of social and religious freedom in America was in the Colony of Maryland. When all the other colonies were persecuting every one that did not believe in their own peculiar religious doctrine and making the most invidious social distinctions, Maryland— the Ever Faithful—was a haven of refuge for all. Situated in a middle place among the colonies, her doctrines gradually spread till today the proud boast of America is that she is the home of the free. Had the sentiments of Massachusetts prevailed, we would have had today a most bigoted form of religious government. Had John Locke's Carolina laws lasted, we would have been under a grinding oligarchy. Georgia under Oglethorpe's wise management joined hands with Calvert in Maryland, and the result of their joint efforts for the betterment of mankind is the grand Republic of the United States of today. Adams and Washington, Franklin and Lincoln are names which shine out from the pages of history today, and back of each was a good and honored mother. These were patriots—not politicians or place hunters. Throughout our history the emergency seems always to have found the man. And they have been prepared by our great women. For even if a man has not a wife it is seldom that any great thing is done that is not helped on by a woman. Girls, know your places. They are no mean positions that you are destined to hold. The pages of the history of the future may hold your names in a high and honored place. Do well your part today. The work of today is the history of tomorrow, and we are its makers. So let us strive to show just as grand names on the pages yet unwritten as are inscribed on those that we have for our proud inheritance.
It is not necessary that every Scout should be proficient in all things suggested for practice. All should be able, to drill and know the signs—secret and open— for the use of the organization. They should practice the precepts laid down for their guidance and be above all things "the little friend to all" that makes such a distinctive feature in the work and training of every day's meeting of Scouts. Consider it a paramount duty to attend all meetings and get the most out of the opportunities offered you in the American Band of Girl Scouts. Make your duties amusements and your amusements duties. So will you find that you daily increase in usefulness and your pleasure in life will grow broader. In union there is strength. The Union of Scouts is to be a strong union for the good of our nation in the future and an ever-increasing bond for success to ourselves and aid to others.
The Star-Spangled Banner
O say, can you see, by the dawn's early light,
What so proudly we hail'd at the twilight's last gleaming?
Whose broad stripes and bright stars, thro' the perilous fight,
O'er the ramparts we watched were so gallantly streaming;
And the rocket's red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof thro' the night that our flag was still there!
O say, does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave?
On the shore, dimly seen thro' the mists of the deep,
Where the foe's haughty host in dread silence reposes,
What is that which the breeze, o'er the towering steep,
As it fitfully blows, half conceals, half discloses?
Now it catches the gleam of the morning's first beam,
In full glory reflected, now shines on the stream— .
"T is the star-spangled banner. O long may it wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave!
And where is that band who so vauntingly swore,
'Mid the havoc of war and the battle's confusion,
A home and a country they 'd leave us no more?
Their blood has washed out their foul footsteps' pollution.
No refuge could save the hireling and slave
From the terror of flight, or the gloom of the grave—
And the star-spangled banner in triumph shall wave,
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave.
O thus be it ever when freemen shall stand
Between their loved homes and foul war's desolation,
Blest with vict'ry and peace, may the heav'n-rescued land
Praise the Power that hath made and preserved us a nation.
Then conquer we must, when our cause it is just,
And this be our motto, " In God is our trust"—
And the star-spangled banner in triumph shall wave,
While the land of the free is the home of the brave.
Francis Scott Key.
My country, 't is of thee,
Sweet land of liberty,
Of thee I sing;
Land where my fathers died,
Land of the Pilgrims' pride,
From every mountain side
Let freedom ring.
My native country, thee,
Land of the noble free.
Thy name I love;
I love thy rocks and rills,
Thy woods and templed hills;
My heart with rapture thrills
Like that above.
Let music swell the breeze,
And ring from all the trees
Sweet freedom's song;
Let mortal tongues awake,
Let all that breathe partake,
Let rocks their silence break,
The sound prolong!
Our father's God, to Thee,
Author of liberty,
To Thee we sing:
Long may our land be bright
With freedom's holy light;
Protect us by Thy might,
Great God, our King.
Samuel Francis Smith, 1832.
Allegiance to the FlagI pledge allegiance to the flag, and to the republic for which it stands; one nation indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.
Girl Scout Salute to the FlagA salute to the Flag should be the first number on the program of every meeting. Use the Scout full salute. The salute may be accompanied by the words of the pledge. Let the hand reach the forehead on the word " allegiance," pointing, palm upward, to the flag on the word "flag." Lower the arm at once and recite the remaining words.
BOOKS ON MERIT BADGE SUBJECTS
Emergencies. Gulick, C. E.
Firebrands. Martin, F. E.
Home Nursing. Harrison, E.
Sure Pop and the Safety Scouts. Bailey, R. R.
Story of the Heavens. Ball, Roberts.
Heavens with an Opera Glass. Serviss, Garrett.
The Friendly Stars. Martin, M. E.
Ways of the Planets. Martin, M. E.
Easy Guide to the Constellations. Gall, James.
Sun Lore of All Ages. Olcott, W. T.
How to Judge a Picture. Van Dyke.
Arts and Crafts:
Art Crafting in Metals for Amateurs. Chandler.
Art Crafts for Beginners. Sanford, F. E.
Dan Beard's Books.
Birds: (see also Naturalist.)
Birds of Village and Field. Merriam, Florence A.
Birds and Bees. Burroughs, John.
Squirrels and Other Fur Bearers. Burroughs, John.
Sharp Eyes. Gibson, Wm. H.
Chapman's Books on Birds—According to Locality.
Bird Guide. Reed, Chester A.
Bird Craft. Wright, M. A.
How to Attract the Birds. Trafton, G.
Boatswain:Boys' Outdoor Vacation Book. Verrill, A. H.
Harper's Boating Book for Boys. Verrill, A. H.
Child Nurse:Baby Clothing. Hitching, W.
Care and Feeding of Children. Holt, L. E.
Care and Training of Children. Kerr, L.
[Pg 143]Care of Milk and Its Use in the Home. U. S. Dept. of Agriculture.
Clerk:Goodwin's Improved Bookkeeping and Business Manual. Goodwin, J. H.
Handbook of Style. (Punctuation.) Houghton, Mifflin.
Modern Business Arithmetic. Curtis, U.
New Practical Typewriting.
Cook, Invalid Cooking:Boston Cooking-School Cook Book. Fanner, F. A.
Food for the Invalid and the Convalescent. Gibbs, W. S.
Mary Frances Cook Book. Fryer, J. E.
When Mother Lets Us Cook. Johnson, C.
Dairy Maid:Dairy Chemistry. Snyder, H.
Milk and Its Products. Wing, H. H.
Official Travelers' Babcock Test. Creamery Package Manufacturing Co.,
Electrician:A. B. C. of Electricity. Meadowcroft, W. H.
Boy Electrician. Morgan, A. P.
Electricity for Young People. Jenks, T.
Harper's Beginning Electricity. Shafer, D. C.
Harper's Electricity Book for Boys. Adams, J. H.
Farmer:Bees. (Farmers' Bulletin 447.) U. S. Dept. of Agr.
How to Keep Bees. Comstock, A. B.
Hints to Poultry Raisers. (Farmers' Bulletin 528.) U. S. Dept. of Agr.
Incubation and Incubators. (Farmers' Bulletin 236.) U. S. Dept. of Agr.
Pig Management. (Farmers' Bulletin 205.) U. S. Dept. of Agr.
Poultry Management. (Farmers' Bulletin 287.) U. S. Dept. of Agr.
First Book of Birds. Miller.
Second Book of Birds. Miller.
Our Home Pets. Miller.
The Garden Book for Young People. Lounsberry.
Bird Stories from Burroughs.
Butterflies and Bees. Morley.
Insect Stories. Kellog.
[Pg 144]The Scout Garden. Bennet, F. H.
Gardens:Children's Gardens for Pleasure, Health and Education. Parsons, H. G.
Garden Primer. Tabor, G.
Harper's Book for Young Gardeners. Verrill, A. H.
School Garden Book. Weed, Clarence.
When Mother Lets Us Garden. Duncan, F.
First Book of Birds. Miller, O. T.
Second Book of Birds. Miller, O. T.
Our Home Pets. Miller, O. T.
Little Gardens for Boys and Girls. Higgins, M.
The Garden Book for Young People. Lounsberry.
Bird Stories. Burroughs.
Butterflies and Bees. Morley.
Insect Stories. Kellog.
The Scout Garden. Bennet, F. H.
Health:Body at Work. Jewett, F: G.
Good Health. Jewett, F. G.
Personal Hygiene. Pyle.
Handbook Girls' Branch of Public School Athletic League. Burchenal.
The Human Mechanism. Hough & Sedgwick.
Housekeeper:Good Housekeeping Magazine. Gilman, E. H.
Housekeeping. (Children's Library of Work and Play.) Gilman, E. H.
How to Live on a Small Income. Hewitt, E. C.
Manual of Household Work and Management. Butterworth.
Mary Frances, Housekeeper. Fryer, J. E.
Laundress:Laundry Manual. Balderston, L. R.
Housekeeping. (Children's Library of Work and Play.) Gilman, E. H.
Musical:Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Gove, G.
Operas that Every Child Should Know. Bacon, M. S.
Stories from the Operas. Davidson.
Story of Music and Musicians. Millie, L. C.
Young People's Story of Music. Whitcomb, I. P.
[Pg 145]Intervals, Theory, Chords, and Ear Training. Brown, J. P.
Naturalist:Bird-Life. Chapman, F. M.
Bird Neighbors. Blanchan, N.
Flower Guide. Reed, C. A.
Handbook of Birds of Eastern North America. Chapman, F. M.
How to Attract the Birds. Blanchan, N.
How to Know the Wild Flowers. Parsons, F. T.
Land Birds. Reed, C. A.
Nature Library. Doubleday.
Standard Library of Natural History. University Society.
Wild Flowers Every Child Should Know. Stack, F. W.
The American Flower Garden. Blanchan, Neltye.
How to Know the Wild Flowers. Mrs. W. M. S. Dana.
How to Know the Ferns. Parsons, Frances T.
Primer of Forestry. Pinchot, Gifford.
Our Native Trees. Keeler, Harriet L.
Ways of Wood Fowls. Long, Wm. D.
Secrets of the Woods. Long, Wm. D.
Lives of the Hunted. Seton-Thompson, Ernest.
Wild Animals I Have Known. Seton-Thompson, Ernest.
Jungle Books. Kipling, Rudyard.
Our National Parks. Muir, John.
Earth and Its Story. Hulprin, Angels.
Needlewoman:Easy Steps in Sewing. Fryer, J. E.
Home Art Crochet Book. Klickmann, F.
Magic of Dress. Gould.
Needlecraft. (Children's Library of Work and Play.) Archer, E. A.
Sewing for Little Girls. Foster, O. H.
Three Hundred Things a Bright Girl Can Do. Kelley, L. E.
When Mother Lets Us Sew. Johnson, C.
Pioneer:Boy's Camp Book. Cave, E.
Boy Scout's Hike Book. Cave, E.
Camp Cookery. Kephart, H.
On the Trail. Beard, L.
Signaling:Official Handbook for Girls.
Telegraphist:Official Handbook for Boys. Boy Scouts of America.
Famous Women:When I Was a Girl in Italy. Ambrosi, M.
Promised Land. Antin, M.
Lives of Girls Who Became Famous. Bolton, S. K.
Joan of Arc. de Monvel, B.
Girls' Book of Famous Queens. Farmer, L. H.
Life of Mary Lyon. Gilchrist, B. B.
Autobiography of a Tomboy. Gilder, J. L.
Historic Girlhoods. Holland, R. S.
Group of Famous Women. Horton, E.
Story of My Life. Keller, H.
New England Girlhood. Larcom, L.
Heroines that Every Child Should Know. Mabie, H. W.
Louise, Queen of Prussia. Merz, H.
Louisa May Alcott. Moses, B.
Life of Alice Freeman Palmer. Palmer, G. H.
Florence Nightingale. Richards, L. E.
When I Was Your Age. Richards, L. E.
Wonder Workers. Wade, M. H.
Jeanne D'Arc. Wilmot-Buxton.
Queens of England. Strickland.
Fairy Tales and Folk Lore:Arabian Nights.
Fairy Tales. Andersen, H. C.
Granny's Wonderful Chair. Browne, F.
Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. Carroll, L.
Fairy Tales. Grimm Bros.
Uncle Remus, His Songs and Sayings. Harris.
Celtic Fairy Tales. Jacobs, J.
Blue Fairy Book. Lang, A.
Pinocchio. Lorenzini, C.
Children's Book. Scudder, H. E.
History of Literature:History of the English Language. Lounsbury, T. P.
English Literature for Boys and Girls. Marshall, H. E.
[Pg 147]Introduction to American Literature. Pancoast, H. S.
Poetry:Songs of Innocence. Blake, Wm.
Golden Staircase. Chisholm, L.
Poems of Childhood. Field, E.
Lyra Heroica. Henley, W.
Boy's Percy. Lanier, S.
Nonsense Books. Lear, E.
Story Telling Poems. Olcott, F. J.
Golden Treasury. Palgrave, F. T.
Book of Famous Verse. Repplier, A.
Child's Garden of Verse. Stevenson, R. L.
Golden Numbers. Wiggin, K. D.
Pinafore Palace. Wiggin, K. D.
Posy Ring. Wiggin, K. D.
Lays of Ancient Rome. Macaulay.
Longfellow's Poems. Longfellow.
Lady of the Lake. Scott.
Idylls of the King. Tennyson.
Robin Hood Ballads. Parker.
Rosemary and Rue. Gordon.
Stories:Lisbeth Longfrock. Aanrud, A.
Little Men. Alcott, L. M.
Little Women. Alcott, L. M.
Under the Lilacs. Alcott, L. M.
Marjorie Daw. Aldrich, T. B.
Pride and Prejudice. Austen, J.
Little Minister. Barrie, J. M.
Lorna Doone. Blackmore, R. D.
Jane Eyre. Brontë, C. M.
Last Days of Pompeii. Lytton, Bulwer.
Girlhood of Shakespeare's Heroines. Clarke, M. C.
Friend of Cæsar. Davis, W. S.
Egyptian Princess. Ebers, G. M.
Silas Marner. Eliot, G.
Ramona. Jackson, H. H.
Hypatia. Kingsley, C.
Mr. Achilles. Lee, J.
Scottish Chiefs. Porter, J.
Cloister and the Hearth. Reade, C.
Daisy Chain. Yonge, C. M.
Peter and Wendy. Barrie, J. M.
Four Gondons. Brown, E. A.
Peep-in-the-World. Crichton, F.
[Pg 148]Hans Brinker. Dodge, M. M.
Lass of the Silver Sword. Dubois, M. C.
Mary's Meadow. Ewing, J. H.
Peterkin Papers. Hale, L. P.
York and a Lancaster Rose. Keary.
Queen Hildegarde. Richards, L. E.
Castle Blair. Shaw, F. E.
Heidi. Spyri, J.
Mother Carey's Chickens. Wiggin, K. D.
David Copperfield. Dickens.
A Tale of Two Cities. Dickens.
The Talisman. Sir Walter Scott.
Little Lord Fauntleroy. Burnett.
Sarah Crewe. Burnett.
Six Girls. Irving, F. B.
John Halifax, Gentleman. Craik, D. M.
Last of the Mohicans. Cooper.
Otto of Silver Hand. Pyle.
Merry Adventures of Rab. Brown.
Treasure Island. Stevenson.
Black Arrow. Stevenson.
Nelly's Silver Mine, Jackson.
Robinson Crusoe. De Foe.
Rab and His Friends. Brown.
Bob, Son of Battle. Ollivant.
The Call of the Wild. London.
Master Skylark. Bennett.
The Prince and the Pauper. Twain.
Harold, the Last of the Saxon Kings. Bulwer-Lytton.
The White Company. Doyle, Conan
Wonderful Adventures of Nils. Lagerlöf.
Tales of Laughter. Smith.
Richard Carvel. Churchill.
Hugh Wynne. Mitchell.
Quentin Durward. Scott.
Ben Hur. Wallace.
Holiday House. Sinclair.
Alice in Wonderland. Carroll.
Just So Stories. Kipling.
Eight Cousins. Alcott.
Juan and Juanita. Baylor.
Black Beauty. Sewell.
Birds' Christmas Carol. Wiggin.
[Pg 149]Story of Siegfried. Baldwin.
Swiss Family Robinson. Wyss.
Six to Sixteen. Ewing.
Man Without a Country. Hale.
Tom Brown's School Days. Hughes.
Anne of Green Gables. Montgomery.
Barnaby Lee. Bennett.
Judith Shakespeare. Black.
Colonel's Opera Cloak. Brush.
Smith College Stories. Daskam.
Captains Courageous. Kipling.
Rudder Grange. Stockton.
A Gentleman of France. Weyman.
New Chronicles of Rebecca. Wiggin.
Polly Oliver's Problem. Wiggin.
Dove in the Eagle's Nest. Yonge.
Elizabeth and her German Garden. (Anonymous.)
Princess Pricelta's Fortnight. Arnim, M. A.
Days of Bruce. Aguilar.
Tales of King Arthur. Lang.
BOOKS OF REFERENCE FOR MERIT BADGE
Birds:Birds as Weed Destroyers. Pp. 221 to 232. Illus. (From Yearbook, 1898.) Paper, 5c. A 1.10:133.
Birds that Eat Scale Insects. Pp. 189 to 198. Illus. (From Yearbook, 1906.) Paper, 5c. A 1.10:416.
Bookkeeping. Farm Bookkeeping. 1912. 37 pp. Illus. (Farmers' Bulletin 511.) Paper, 5c. A 1.9:511.
Does it Pay the Farmer to Protect Birds? Pp. 165 to 178. Illus. (From Yearbook, 1907.) Paper, 5c. A 1.10:443.
Economic Value of Predaceous Birds and Mammals. Pp. 187 to 194. Illus. (From Yearbook, 1908.) Paper, 5c. A 1.10:474.
Fifty Common Birds of Farm and Orchard. 1913. 31 pp. Illus. (Farmers' Bulletin 513.) Paper, 15c. A 1.9:513.
Food of Some Well-Known Birds of Forest, Farm, and Garden. 1912. 35 pp. Illus. (Farmers' Bulletin 506.) Paper, 5c. A 1.9:506.
How Birds Affect the Orchard. Pp. 291 to 304. Illus. (From Yearbook, 1900.) Paper, 5c. A 1.10:197.[Pg 150]
Migratory Movements of Birds in Relation to Weather. Pp. 379 to 390. 1 illus. (From Yearbook, 1910.) Paper, 5c. A 1.10:545.
Relation of Birds to Fruit Growing in California. Pp. 241 to 254. (From Yearbook, 1904.) Paper, 5c. A 1.10:344.
Some Common Birds in their Relation to Agriculture. Revised, 1904. 48 pp. Illus. (Farmers' Bulletin 54.) Paper, 5c. A 1.9:54.
Some Common Game, Aquatic, and Rapacious Birds in Relation to Man. 1912. 30 pp. Illus. (Farmers' Bulletin 497.) Paper, 5c. A 1.9:497.
Health:Health and Cleanliness—O'Shea and Kellogg—pp. 54-124.
Butter-Making on the Farm. 1905. 31 pp. (Farmers' Bulletin 241.) Paper, 5c. A 1.9:241.
Canning Vegetables in the Home. 1909. 16 pp. Illus. (Farmers' Bulletin 359.) Paper, 5c. A 1.9:359.
School Lessons on Corn. 1910. 29 pp. Illus. (Farmers' Bulletin 409.) Paper, 5c. A 1.9:409.The Home and Family—Kinne and Cooley—pp. 96-137.Handbook of Domestic Science and Household Arts—Wilson—pp. 273-276 and 55-58.
Farm Houses:Modern Conveniences for the Farm Home. 1906. 48 pp. Illus. (Farmers' Bulletin 270.) Paper, 5c. A 1.9:270.
Farmers' Bulletins:34. Meats, Composition and Cooking. Paper, 5c.
131. Household Tests for the Detection of Oleomargarine and Renovated Butter.
154. Home Fruit Garden, Preparation and Care. Paper, 5c.
166. Cheese-Making on the Farm. Paper, 5c.
180. Game Laws for 1903. Paper, 5c.
185. Beautifying the Home Grounds. Paper, 5c.
188. Weeds Used in Medicine. Paper, 5c.
195. Annual Flowering Plants. Paper, 5c.
197. Importation of Game Birds and Eggs for Propagation. Paper, 5c.
218. School Garden. 2d revised edition. Paper, 5c.
234. Guinea Fowl and its Use as Food. Paper, 5c.
351. Tuberculin Test of Cattle for Tuberculosis. Paper, 5c.
375. Care of Food in Home, corrected to Mar. 25, 1910. Paper, 5c.
409. School Lessons on Corn. Paper, 5c.
459. House Flies. Paper, 5c.[Pg 151]
468. Forestry in Nature Study. Paper, 5c.
478. How to Prevent Typhoid Fever. Paper, 5c.
506. Food of Some Well-Known Birds of Forest, Farm, and Garden. Paper, 5c.
511. Farm Bookkeeping. Paper, 5c.
513. Fifty Common Birds of Farm and Orchard. Paper, 15c.
525. Raising Guinea Pigs. Paper, 5c.
Figs. Smyrna Fig Culture in United States. Pp. 79 to 106. Illus. (From Yearbook, 1900.) Paper, 5c. A 1.10:196.
Forest Fires:Attitude of Lumbermen toward Forest Fires. Pp. 133 to 140. Illus. (From Yearbook, 1904.) Paper, 5c. A 1.10:337.
Forestry in Nature Study (with Key to Common Kinds of Trees). 1911. 43 pp. Illus. (Farmers' Bulletin 468.) Paper, 5c. A 1.9:468.
Grosbeaks. Our Grosbeaks and their Value to Agriculture. 1911. 14 pp. Illus. (Farmers' Bulletin 456.) Paper, 5c. A 1.9:456.
Headache Mixtures. Harmfulness of Headache Mixtures (containing Acetanilid, Antipyrin, and Phenacetin). 1909. 16 pp. (Farmers' Bulletin 377.) Paper, 5c. A 1.9:377.
Perfumery:Can Perfumery Farming Succeed in United States? Pp. 377 to 398. Illus. (From Yearbook, 1898.) Paper, 5c. A 1.10:135.Plants:Plants Useful to Attract Birds and Protect Fruit. Pp. 185 to 196. (From Yearbook, 1909.) Paper, 5c. A 1.10:504.
School Exercises in Plant Production. 1910. 48 pp. Illus. (Farmers' Bulletin 408.) Paper, 5c. A 1.9:408.Poisonous Plants:Some Poisonous Plants of Northern Stock Ranges. Pp. 305 to 324. Illus. (From Yearbook, 1900.) Paper, 5c. A 1.10:206.
School Garden. 2d revised edition, 1909. 41 pp. Illus. (Farmers' Bulletin 218.) Paper, 5c. Yearbook. (Separates.)414. Cage-Bird Traffic of United States. Paper, 10c.
485. Manufacture of Flavoring Extracts. Paper. 5c.
Farmers' Bulletins(These Bulletins can be obtained in Washington Agricultural Department for five cents.)
Woman's Edition of Red Cross Abridged Text-Book on First Aid, can be obtained for 35 cents from Girl Scout Headquarters, 527 Fifth Avenue, New York City.
Elementary Hygiene and Home Care of Sick, by Jane Delano.
INDEXAccidents, 64, 131
Artificial respiration, 129
Astronomy, 82, 142
Athletic feats, 55
Athletics, 48. (Also see Manual)
Babcock test, 119
Badges, merit, 31
Bathing, precautions, 65
Bird Study, 34, 142
Boatswain, 34, 142
Books, 13, 146
Bronze cross, 30
Camp oven, 63
Career, 15, 16
Carey, Arthur A., 86
Child nurse, 35, 120, 142
Cleaning, 106, 111, 115
Clerk, 35, 143
Commands, 78. (Also see Manual)
Compass, 70, 71
Contents, table of, iii
Continental code, 75
Conventional signs, 72
Cook, 37, 109, 139
Council, Local, 3
Council, National, 2
Dairy, 38, 116, 143
"Day and Night," 52
Dodge ball, 53
Dressing wounds, 132
Drinking water, 97
Electricity, 38, 143
Equipment, camp, 66
Executive committee, 2
Exercise, 98, 103
Eyes, 99, 124
Farmer, 39, 143
First-Class Scout, 26
Flag Salute, 141
Games, 48. (Also see Manual)
Gardening, 39, 92, 144
Golden eaglet, 30
Hams, curing, 120
Hand signals, 79
Headquarters, 1, 2
Health, 40, 98, 144
Home life, 106
Home nursing, 41
Housekeeping, 13, 23, 116, 119 and 144
Hygiene, personal, 96. (See Manual)
Ice rescue, 130
[Pg 154]Influence of women, 9
Insect bites, 134
Invalid cooking, 37
Ivy-poisoning, 130, 134
Kim's game, 53
Meats, cooking, 110
Modesty, a Scout's, 12
Morgan's game, 54
Morse code, 77
Nose, hygiene of, 98
Novelty competitions, 49
Orders, camp, 65
Patch, Scout, 107
Patriotism, 18, 136
Physical development, 101 (Also see Manual)
Pledge to flag, 141
Promise, Scout's, 6
Provisions for camp, 61
Pulse, normal rate, 123
Reading, 13, 146
Reference books, 142 (Leaders, also see Manual)
Respect to flag, 141
Routine, camp, 63
Salute, 3, 141
Second-Class Scout, 25
Song of the Fifty Stars, 86
Star Spangled Banner, 141
Stories, 142, 143
Strength, physical, 102
Study, 16. (Leaders, also see Manual, List of Books)
Sun clock, 90
Team games, 49
"Thanks" badge, 29
Three Deep, 51
Time by stars, 83
Water, drinking, 58, 117
In Memory of Eileen Alma Klos (1929-1974)
Girl Scout Leader: Mother of Eight
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