How Girls Can Help Their Country III

  Images from the collection of Dr. Naomi Yavneh - Girl Scout Handbook 1916: Website designed in Memory of Eileen Alma Klos (1929-1974)
How Girls Can Help Their Country

This eBook, its edits and links were uploaded as part of the

 By: Juliette Gordon Low, Agnes Smyth Baden-Powell, and
Baron Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell Baden-Powell of Gilwell

Press of M. S. & D. A. Byck co., 1916

Part III

Girl Scouts Sports - Images from the collection of Dr. Naomi Yavneh - Girl Scout Handbook 1916: Website designed in Memory of Eileen Alma Klos (1929-1974)


The finest type of physical vigor is developed from playing vigorous outdoor games. This applies to girls as well as to boys. Games have the great advantage over drills and gymnastics that they are worth while for the fun alone. Play is a necessary and natural activity for every individual. Unless each one of us gives the proper share of her time to wholesome forms of recreation, she cannot be cheerful and happy, and thus she cannot influence those around her toward greater happiness. Each one of us should so plan each day that we shall spend at least one hour playing vigorous games outdoors. The younger girls should use the whole afternoon for play and recreation. No girl can become a normal woman without having had her share of joyful and active play.
Girls nowadays are playing more and more, and growing stronger and more athletic. As a result they have better health and greater beauty. No beauty parlor can produce the perfect complexion and bright eyes which nature gives to the out-of-doors girl.
There are certain cautions which girls should use in practicing games and athletics. After they are twelve or thirteen, they should avoid sports like high or broad jumping, which cause a heavy jar upon landing. Girls should not compete in long distance running, or in games which call for violent and long-continued exertion. Basket-ball may easily be too severe if played according to boys' rules or for long halves. In such games there should be a gradual preparation for the competition. An examination of the heart by a physician is very desirable, before this type of game is played. Girls frequently overdo rope-skipping. No girl should jump more than fifty times in succession. Excessively keen competition under trying conditions frequently has a bad effect upon girls of a nervous temperament. Of course, girls should rest and not take part in active games when they are physically incapacitated. There are, however, a wide variety of games and sports in which girls may find both pleasure and profit. The ideal type of exercise for girls is found in swimming, walking and similar activities in which the exertion is not excessively violent, and which call for long-continued or repeated efforts. Girls excel in endurance in such sports. '

Team games are especially valuable for girls as they need the moral discipline of learning to efface themselves as individuals and; to play as a member of the team. That is, they learn sports  joining the team games suitable for girls archery, field hockey, Soccer, baseball played with a soft ball and basketball.
Among athletic events that may be used for girls, are: short sprints, usually not over fifty yards, throwing balls for distance, relay races and balancing competitions.
Walking is a delightful sport when done at a good pace, in the country. All girls are fond of rope-skipping and skating.
Novelty competitions, in wide variety, may easily be invented to amuse a group of Scouts. The following will suggest many other variations: A short walking match, heel and toe. The distance may vary from twenty to one hundred yards or more. The same competition may be conducted going backward.
Have all the girls take a prone position, face downward, hands and feet in a specified position. On a signal, get up and run to the finishing line. The usual signal is "On your marks," "Get set," "Go." There should be no movement whatever until the final signal "Go." Have the players hop backward or forward in a race. Various combinations of these will readily suggest themselves.
Two or more teams of girls may find much fun in simple passing games. Arrange the teams in line, either seated or standing. Have them pass such an object as a bean bag, ball or stick in a specified way. For instance, if the girls are seated, one behind the other, the bean bag may be passed backward over the right shoulder with one hand, around the back of the last girl, and. forward over the left shoulder. The game starts with the bag on the ground in front of the leader, and is finished when the leader replaces it there, after it has passed through the hands of each girl on the team. Be careful to see that there are the same number of girls on each team, and that the lines occupy, when arranged, the same space on the ground. Next let the players pass the bag backward overhead with both hands, and forward in any manner they like.
The following variation will introduce an additional feature that makes the game all the livelier. Let the object be passed back to the last player who then runs forward and takes the place of the leading player, every player in that line moving back one position as this player runs to the front of the line. This is continued until the captain or leader has gone through every place in the line and run back to the front. The team whose captain gets to the front first, wins the game.
Another stage of this game may be played by stretching a cord or rope across in front of the two lines, eight or ten feet high. As each player advances, the bag or ball must be thrown over the rope from the near to the far side, caught, and then thrown back. Any player failing to catch the object must make the throw over again. After she returns to the head of the line, the object is passed back to the last player in the same manner, and the game continues until the captain or leading player has passed through every position in the line, and come back to the front.
A similar game may be played with a basket-ball and basket-ball goals, each girl being required to shoot a' goal at one or both ends of the basket-ball court. In the woods or in camp a ring or hoop may be substituted for the basket-ball goal.
Hundreds of such simple games are found in the books on games listed in the Handbook. A few of the more useful and popular games are described below.

Three Deep
Twenty-four or more players form a circle of pairs with space enough between the players (who stand closely one behind the other, facing the center of the circle) to allow the runners to turn and run in all directions. Two players on the outside of the circle and at a distance from each other begin the game. One of these is called the "tagger," the other is "It." She tries to tag "It" before she can secure a place in front of any of the pairs forming the circle. If she succeeds, r&les are changed, the player who has been tagged then becomes the "tagger" and the former "tagger" tries to secure a place in front of some pair. But whenever the runner (the player pursued) has succeeded in getting in front of a pair before being tagged, then the hindmost (the last or third, in the respective rank) must take to her heels and seek to evade the unsuccessful "tagger" who now turns her attention to the new runner. In trying to evade a tagger the successive players may run in any direction, either left or right, outside the circle, but not pass in front of any one rank to another rank in such a manner as to induce wrong starts. A hindmost player may also form in front of his own rank, making the second player in such rank hindmost or "third." The play is always directed against the third or last of a rank, two players being the number limited to each place.
(When classes of players in the beginning are too large the circle may be formed by rows or ranks of threes, instead of twos or pairs.)
Expert players may form several circles and run from circle to circle, two pairs playing simultaneously. The above play may be varied in a number of ways.

Day and Night
The players divide into two parties, form in two lines, back to back, about three paces apart. One of the lines is named the " Day Party" the other the "Night Party." The leader has a disk painted black on one side and white on the other. (A coin may be used instead of the disk.) In front of each party is a goal. The leader throws the disk into the air. If the disk alights with the white side up the leader calls " Day." The " Day Party" then rushes toward its goal and the "Night Party" pursues, tagging as many players of the " Day Party" as possible. These they take back to their own line. The disk is thrown again, and the party whose side turns up starts for their goal as before. The game continues in this way until all the players on one of the sides are lost.

One of the players is chosen as the "Sculptor " and she arranges the other players in different positions and attitudes as statues. No player dares move or speak, for as soon as she does the sculptor punishes her by beating her with a knotted handkerchief or towel (the sackbeetle). After having arranged the players to suit her fancy the sculptor leaves the playground, saying: "The sculptor is not at home." No sooner is she gone than the statues come to life, sing, dance, jump and play havoc in general. On the return of the sculptor she counts, "One. •two, three," and any player who is not in her former posture at "Three" receives a be'ating with the knotted handkerchief from the sculptor. Should the sculptor punish the wrong statue all the players rush at her with knotted handkerchiefs and drive her to a goal previously decided upon, and the game is resumed with some other player as sculptor.

Cross Tag
Any player who is chased may be relieved by any other player running between her and the one trying to tag her. The latter must then run after the player who ran between, till she in turn is relieved.

Dodge Ball
Of any even number of players, half form a circle,, •while the other half stand inside the ring, facing outward. The players in the center dodge the ball, which, while in play, is thrown by any of those forming the circle. Those who are hit with the ball take their places among those around the circle, and have an equal chance at those remaining in the center. One is put out at a time. This is kept up until no one is left, in the circle, after which the players exchange places, that is, those who were in the .circle now form around the circle, and vice versa.

Kim's Game
Place twenty or thirty small articles on a tray or table, or the floor, and cover with a cloth—different kinds of buttons, pencils, corks, nuts, siring, knives, or other such small things. Make a list and have a column opposite for each player's name. Uncover for just one minute and then take each player by herself and check off the articles she can remember. The winner is the one who remembers the most.

Morgan's Game
Players run quickly to a certain bill-board or shop window where an umpire is posted to time them a minute for their observation. They then run back to 'headquarters and report all they can remember of the advertisements on bill-board or objects in shop window.

Scout Meets Scout
Patrols of Scouts are to approach each other from a distance. The first to give the signal that the other is in sight wins. In this game it is not fair to disguise but hiding the approach in any way is admissible. You can climb a tree, ride in any vehicle, or hide behind some slowly moving or stationary object. But be sure to keep in touch with the one who is to give the signal.  It is best that others should not know the Scouts' secret passwords, so one is given at a time in this book for those that can search best.

Acting Charades
may be indoors or out. A very good one is for two or three players to act as if they wanted some special thing that is in sight. The first who discovers what this is then selects some other players to act with her.

Unprepared Plays
Relate the plot of some simple play, after which assign a part to each of several to act out. Let them confer for a short time and then act it. This develops many fine talents and is one of the most useful games for the memory, expression, and imagination.
A Scout always shakes hands when she loses a game and congratulates the winner.

Inventory Game.
Let each girl go into a room for half a minute and when she comes out let her make a list of what she has seen. Then compare lists to find who has seen the most.

Testing Noses.
This is easiest with the competitors blindfolded. Let them smell different things and tell what they are. Also the objects may be placed in bags but this means much more work.

Chasing An Owl.
Another good stalking game is chasing the owl. This is done in thick woods where one Scout represents the owl hooting at intervals and then moving to one side for a distance. Each pursuer when seen is called out of the game and the owl, if a real good one, may get safely back to her stump.

Turkey And Wildcat is played by the turkey blindfolded "going to roost" in some place where there are plenty of twigs or dry leaves to crack and rustle. At the first sound the turkey jumps. If not then in reach of the wildcat she is safe and another wildcat has a chance. This is sometimes very laughable for the turkey being blindfolded may jump right on the wildcat.

Far And Near.
On any walk, preferably in patrol formation, let each keep a list of things seen such as birds, flowers, different kinds of trees, insects, vehicles, tracks, or other "sign." Score up in points at the end of the walk on return to the club rooms.


The Palm Spring 
Stand at a little distance from a wall with your face toward it and leaning forward until you are able to place the palm of your hand quite flat on the wall; you must then take a spring from the hand and recover your upright position without moving either of your feet. It is better to practice it first with the feet at a little distance only from the wall, increasing the space as you gradually attain greater proficiency in the exercise.

Put a basket-ball between your feet in such a manner that it is held between your ankles and the inner side of the feet; then kick up backward with both your feet and in this manner try to jerk the ball over your head,, catching it when it comes down.
Hand Wrestling
Two players face each other, feet planted firmly, full stride position apart, right hands grasped. Each player tries to displace the other player. One foot moved displaces a player.

Sitting Toe Wrestle
Two players sit on a mat facing each other, knees bent perpendicularly, toes touching opponent's. Pass stick under knees and clasp your hands in front of knees. When the signal is given, attempt to get your toes under opponent's toes and upset her.
(An excellent list of games to be used while in camp will be found on page 440 of Games for the Home, School, and Gymnasium, by Jessie H. Bancroft. See, also, additional books listed under this topic in the Handbook.)


It is advisable that Patrols or Companies should have some place of their own at which to camp. Some small plot of woodland is easily secured near most any of our cities. At the beaches it is frequently impossible to secure the privacy desirable. The seaside is not easily fenced in. If you own your camping ground all desirable sanitary conditions can be looked after and buildings of a more or less permanent nature erected. Even a "brush house" in a spot which you are allowed to use exclusively is better than having to hunt a place every time you want to camp out. "Gypsying" from place to place is inadvisable.
When you have your own camp, too, much better chances for study will be found possible. You will have your own trees, flowers, and birds to notice and care for, and a record of them is valuable even in a very limited space. Think of the beautiful work of White—The Natural History of Selborne.
Name your camp by all means. Long ago we formed the habit of naming all our camps using by preference the name of the first bird seen there. Now we use the Seminole name. So we have our "Ostata" and "Tashkoka." Some of the names are too hard, though, for civilized tongues. "Mooganaga" for instance, might hurt somebody's mouth when she tries to pronounce it.
When going into camp never forget matches. When leaving camp I used to put all my spare matches into a dry empty bottle, cork it tight, and hide it. After many years I have found my matches as good as "new" where I had hidden them. By rubbing two sticks together one can make a fire without matches.
Camping out is one of my hobbies. Walks and picnics are all very well as far as they go, but to get the full benefit of actual contact with Nature it is absolutely necessary to camp out. That does not mean sleeping on wet bare ground but just living comfortably out of doors, where every breath of heaven can reach you and all wild things are in easy reach. A camp can be easily planned within daily reach of many of our large cities but should be far enough to escape city sounds and smells. It is not a camp, however, if it is where a stream of strangers can pass by at any time of the day or night within sight and hearing.
Water is a supreme requisite at any camp. Water to swim in may be dispensed with in extreme cases, but you can't carry your water with you and have a comfortable time. I have been where I had to do it so I know how it is. Also I have had to dig water out of the ground. That is not an easy operation so be sure and camp near a well or spring. Wood, too, you will want and it must be dry. Don't try to cook with fat pine. It's all right to kindle with but not for cooking. Your bacon fried over it will be as fine eating as a porous plaster. Fry your potatoes. If you must roast them dig a hole in the ashes and cover them deep. Then go away and forget them. Let some one else come along and cook all sorts of things on top of them. When you come back rake them out of the ashes and astonish every one.

Be sure your cooking fire is not too big. You must be able to get up to it comfortably close without scorching your face. Start a small fire and feed it as required with small dry twigs. Cooking over an outdoor fire is a fine art and has to be studied carefully. It should be called almost a post-graduate course in the camp studies. Of course the regular camp-fire can be made as big and smoky as you like. Smoke is fine to watch but not to breathe. Even the mosquitoes dislike it.
Roughing it is all very fine to talk about, but it is best to make your camp as comfortable as possible. The ground is good to sleep upon but not stones and sticks. It's really astonishing how big a stick, no longer than your finger, can grow in one night. Take my word for it and don't try it. It won't pay. A hammock is my preference but a cot is about as good. On a pinch twigs and grass are not to be despised. Moss is apt to be moist but there is no possible objection to clean dry sand. Be sure not to let your fire get away from you and spread. Besides the damage to trees and fences that it may do it is impossible to tell what suffering it may cause to animal life. So, be very careful. To prevent forest fires Congress passed the law approved May 5, 1900, which— Forbids setting fire to the woods, and  Forbids leaving any fires unextinguished.

When you leave your camp clean up. Fragments of food—not pickles—can be put up somewhere for the birds. At some of our camps we have regular places to feed the birds and they get to know what time to come there. Here in the woods my wrens have established for themselves the hour of sunrise, and it is partly to escape their scolding for neglect that I get up with the sun. Mrs. Jenny scolds furiously but for actual singing she can beat any bird in the woods.
Perhaps you notice that we have said nothing about snakes. Now it is really a very rare thing to see a snake in the woods. You have to look very carefully to find them, for they seem to be about the most timid of all creatures. So far as danger from poisonous snakes is concerned you are in much more danger from the driver of. a dray than from a snake. Take our word for it, snakes are much more afraid of you than you are of them. Give them the least little bit of a chance and they will be out of the way before you can see them. A gorged snake—that is one that has just taken a full meal—may be sluggish but in a majority of cases he will crawl away and hide in some secure place till the process of digestion is over. Do not go near'a tub if you are afraid of water for you can get drowned in it about as easy as you can get bitten by a snake in the woods and to wind up the subject, not one-tenth of the people who get snake bitten, die from it. A very few do die but most of them die from the bad treatment they receive afterwards. The "deadly auto" will not get out of your way but all snakes will.
Once in a while you may find clinging in a low bush a pretty little green snake. It will readily submit to being handled and is perfectly harmless. We have found these snakes useful in the house to kill flies. The harmless snakes are the brown snake, the common banded moccasin, the black mountain snake, the green snake. The garter and ring-necked snakes wear Eve's wedding-ring as a collar. They cannot hurt and they eat up quantities of insects, but beware of the yellow and brown rattlesnakes, especially after rainy weather, for it is said that after wet weather they cannot make any noise with their rattles and therefore you are not warned of their presence. The most deadly snake, the moccasin, is brownish with a flat head.
The green lizards, too, will almost rid a house of flies if left to wander about at will. The fence lizard, a scaly alligator looking chap, is just as useful but never gets tame.
Try petting a toad some time. He will get to be quite at home in a garden and pay well, for he will eat all kinds of destructive insects. Some gardeners buy toads, paying as high as a quarter apiece, for they know how much good they can do. A load digs his hole backwards. Watch him and see the fun. In the spring if there is water near he may be induced to sing to you. If you think he is slow and clumsy you have only to see how quick he can catch a fly.

Provisioning a Camp
This should be a matter of mature consideration. Unless there is some place near by where deficiencies can be supplied your camp may be a misery instead of a pleasure. Have lists made out of the things each is to bring, if it is to be a cooperative affair. It may be best to have a committee, even if it is a committee of one, to do all the buying. But even in this case individual tastes must be consulted. A full list should be made out and strictly adhered to. At one camp where each brought what she thought best there were six cans of soup, four pounds of sugar, and no tea or coffee.

Canned goods are all very well if you do not have to carry them too far. So too are potatoes. For lightness on long trips, dried fruits and meal or grits are a wise selection. Oatmeal is light and easy to cook. Prepared batter-cake flour is a pure joy to the camp cook. Once when camping in the mountains we had unexpected difficulties. We were at such an elevation that water boiled at too low a temperature to cook many things "done," so the frying-pan there reigned supreme. As to that same frying-pan be sure to select the " long handled kind." If not you will have to splice out the handle with a long stick. Never pack up your " unwetables " in paper bags. At any time a shower or even a heavy dew at night may make you run short on salt, sugar, or flour. Covered tin cans are too cheap to make it necessary to run any such risks. Have a lantern and oil of course. Candles blow out too easily to be of much use. For sudden calls for a light the pocket electric affair is very good and cheap. Keep it standing up. The batteries waste quite fast if it is left down on the side.

The quantity of provisions to be taken depends on the length of stay. Consult any good military or naval ration list and a very good guess can be made. They all seem to lay stress on beans which certainly are very good if you have the "Boston" appetite.

Keep your camp clean. Keep it in order. Let your motto be, "Tidy as you go." It is as bad to have to hunt for a thing you want in camp as it is at home and particularly exasperating if, when you have found it, you must wash it before using. "A place for everything and that place anywhere" is a bad camp rule, though it does sound as if it was a real easy way of disposing of the matter. Dig a hole to throw slops in and do not let them " fly " on the ground. You may want to sit down right there. Whatever the birds will eat should be put aside for them. All other scraps and things that may become offensive must be buried. Don't start to breed flics or fever. When near the water some part of this rule may be dispensed with in favor of the fish and crabs. They may be judiciously baited up, but if you are going to fish for them see that they are not overfed.

There are times and seasons when wild fruits and berries are a most welcome addition to the camp fare, but unless you are perfectly sure of the supply do not reckon on them too much in making up your provision list. Better let them be a sort of joyful surprise. So too of fish and game. "Don't count your chickens before they are hatched." Fresh smilax shoots can scarcely be told from asparagus. Palmetto cabbage well cooked is fine; poorly prepared it is vile. Let some one that knows about these things "do" them for you.

The "gipsy kettle" is picturesque and only picturesque. Drive a stout crotched stake on each side of the fire and put a stout stick across them. Use strong wire hooks—S-shaped on which to hang pots over the fire. If hung through the handle on the stick they are apt to boil over and put out the fire before you know it. They may be quickly lifted from the wire hooks as soon as they begin to look dangerous. Even the coffee-pot may be rigged with a wire handle by which to be hung. .Wire and string are our special hobbies in camp. Fan a fire instead of blowing it. Your breath has lost most of its combustible gas. A tin or wooden plate makes a good fan. Put away dry kindling every night. You don't know what sort of weather it will be to-morrow.

Use all precaution against your fire spreading. This is particularly necessary where there are tents. A dry tent will almost" whisk " up in smoke if the fire catches it. Rake dry leaves well away from about the fire. It may be best sometimes to make "a burn" round the camp. Do this a little at a time beating out all traces of the fire in the part burnt over. Be in no hurry about this but be thorough. Leave no smoldering embers or chunks of rotten wood smoking behind you. Burn clean as you go.

Camp Oven
The camp kitchen or camp oven is made with two lines of soda bricks, stones, or thick logs flattened at the top, about six feet long, slightly splayed from each other, being four inches apart at one end and eight inches at the other. The big end should be towards the wind, so that a sort of tunnel is formed in the big end at windward. Start your fire and the draught will carry the heat along the tunnel.

Daily Routine in Camp
Have a set of general orders posted every morning. There should be one officer of the day and one orderly. These will be appointed in turn. The general order should be read before breakfast and include all duties and so far as possible the excursions and games for the day. In appointing cooks and details for the various duties be sure not to •work the "willing horse" too hard but let all share as much alike as possible. Some will always want to volunteer too often and some will try to avoid certain duties distasteful to themselves or "swap" with others. This should not be allowed but helping must never be barred completely. Inspect camp personally at least once a day and call attention to shortcomings kindly •without chiding. You can help your girls to help themselves. A "driver" in camp is sure to breed hard feelings and cause discontent. The camp is a hard school for the instructor. One of the necessary laws in a camp is that after lights are out at night, no one must speak. Silence should reign.
In some places mosquitoes are very troublesome. Oil of citronella will drive them away for a time but a "smudge" may be necessary. They won't stay in smoke or wind, so hunt the breeze. There are some other flies just as bad to which the same treatment may be applied. "Black-flies" of the northern woods are about the worst insect pest in America, though the mosquitoes in some parts of the South, are nearly as bad. In some of the coast regions, too, there is a species of "sandfly" or midge that is exceedingly annoying, but all of these are readily controlled by the "smudge." This is a steady smoke not necessarily of an ill-smelling nature. One of the very best materials for a "smudge" is green cedar branches. They need some pretty hot coals to keep them smoldering but are very effective.
Very few accidents need happen in camp. But still it may be a wise precaution to go over with each patrol, before the camping trip, some simple exercise in bandaging and other "First Aid" exercises. In a book of the scope of this one it is not possible to give a full course of instruction in such matters, so it seems best to make only casual mention and leave details to the judgment of the patrol leaders and captains.
If any boating is to be a part of the program they should inform themselves carefully which of their patrol can swim and just how expert they cut. Also instruct in methods of throwing things to a drowning person or one who has just met with some mishap in a boat—such for instance as losing an oar. A board or a plank should not be thrown toward a person in the water but launched toward them. When adrift in an unmanageable boat cast anchor and wait for assistance. Never rock a boat for fun. A Scout who so far forgets herself as to do such a foolhardy act should be forbidden to go into a boat again for some time as a punishment. Most drowning accidents are from some such fun.  It is sin— not fun
When bathing obey strictly all orders regarding distance to be ventured another rules. You may think they are mere summary restrictions but you are probably not the best judge.
Last summer a party of boys were bathing. Contrary to orders they scattered apart 'instead of keeping close together. While the Captain back was turned looking after the smaller boys, some of the big boys began to dare each other to go farther and farther out. When the Captain blew the whistle for them some still persisted in swimming away from the beach and one of them was drowned. And to make it still worse he drowned in shallow water where, if he had only known or had kept his wits about him, he could have waded ashore.

Camp Orders

In going into camp it is essential to have a few "Standing Orders" published, •which may be added to from time to time, if necessary. These should be carefully explained to patrol leaders, who should then be held fully responsible for their Scouts carrying them out exactly.
Such orders might point out that each patrol will camp separately from the others, and that there will be a comparison between the respective camps as to cleanliness and good order of tents and surrounding ground.

Patrol leaders to report on the good or indifferent work of their Scouts, which will be recorded in the Captain's book of marks.
Bathing should be under strict supervision to prevent non-swimmers getting into dangerous water. No girl must bathe when not well.
Bathing picket of two good swimmers will be on duty while bathing is going on, and ready to help any girl in distress. This picket will be in the boat with bathing costume and overcoat on. They may bathe only when the general bathing is over and the last of the bathers has left the water. If bathing in the surf, a stake should be driven into the sand on the beach and a rope securely fastened to the stake so that non-swimmers can hold on to the rope in the water.
Orders as to what is to be done in case of fire alarm.
Orders as to boundaries, grounds to be worked over, damages to fences, property, good drinking water, etc.
No Scout allowed out of bounds without leave.
No lads allowed inside bounds without leave.
Camping Equipment Necessary for One Week or Longer
1 Transport wagon.
2 Tents for girls.
1 Tent for officer.
3 Mallets and sufficient tent-pegs.
2 Blankets for each Scout.
2 Blankets for officer.
1 Kit bag each (2 ft. by 1 ft. or bigger).
8 Waterproof ground sheets.
3 Buckets.
3 Hurricane lamps.
2 Balls of twine (medium).
1 Spade
1 Hatchet.
Kitchen Equipment
2 Saucepans.
I Large frying pan.
Butcher knife.
Kitchen fork.
Spoons, ladles, and tea strainer.
Six tea cloths.
Cleaning rags.
Chopping board and knife.
Kitchen soap and scouring powder.
I Dish pan.
Clothing and Equipment for Each Scout
1 Set of underwear, cotton flannel nightgown, and lisle or cotton stockings for each week. Do not take silk stockings.
Dress besides Scout uniform.
Pair heavy shoes.
Pair rubbers. 3 Handkerchiefs.
Sweater or coat.
Hairbrush and comb and tooth-brush.
3 Towels.
2 Pillow-cases.
Soap and wash rag or sponge. .
Bathing suit.
I Plate.
I Cup and saucer.
"Hussif " fitted with needles, thread, scissors.
Paper pad and envelopes and pencil.
Knife and fork.
Teaspoon and large spoon.
2 Woolen blankets.
Useful Knots
Girl Scouts Stretcher - Images from the collection of Dr. Naomi Yavneh - Girl Scout Handbook 1916: Website designed in Memory of Eileen Alma Klos (1929-1974)

Everyone should be able to tie knots. A knowledge of knots is useful in every trade or calling, and forms an important part of a Girl Scout's training. As it may happen some day that a life may depend on a knot being properly tied you ought to know the proper way.
Girl Scouts knots - Images from the collection of Dr. Naomi Yavneh - Girl Scout Handbook 1916: Website designed in Memory of Eileen Alma Klos (1929-1974)
The Bowline is a loop that will not slip after the first grip. First make a loop, then pass the end up through it, round the back of the standing part, and down through the loop again. It is often used as a halter for horses.
The Running Bowline. This is the nautical slip knot. First make the loop as in the ordinary bowline but allow a good length of end (A). Pass it round the standing part and up through the loop, and continue as in the ordinary bowline.
The Reef Knot. It is used to join two dry ropes of the same thickness. It will not slip, and can be easily untied when wanted. Do not confuse it with the "Granny" knot. It is the only knot used in First Aid work.
The Clove Hitch is made with two half-hitches. When fastened to a pole and pulled tight it can slip neither up nor down. Greatly used in pioneering work.
The Half-hitch. Pass the end round a pole, then round the standing part, then through below itself again.

The Fisherman's Knot. Make this knot by tying. a simple knot on rope B with the end of rope A, then tie a similar knot on rope A with the end of rope B. Pull the standing parts and the knots will remain fast.
Round Turn And Two Half-hitches. It is used for making fast a rope so that the strain will not jamb hitches.
The Sheet Bend. Used for uniting two dry ropes of different thicknesses. First form a loop, then pass the end of the other rope up through the loop, round the back of the end and standing part of loop, and through below itself.
The Sheep-shank. A Scout should never cut rope unless absolutely necessary. To shorten a guy rope on tent or marquee, gather the rope in the form of two long loops and pass a half-hitch over each loop. It remains firm under a good strain and can be easily undone when required.
Middleman's Knot. Somewhat similar to the fisherman's knot but in this case only one rope is used. Can safely be used as a halter
The Slip Knot. You sometimes want to release a knot quickly so this knot is used. It is simply the reef knot with one of the ends (A) pushed through one of the loops. To release, pull end A.
Overhand Loop Knot. When pulling a rope you may wish to gain more purchase on it or you may wish to insert a short stick to pull with. Use the loop knot shown in our diagram.

Important. Many of the knots shown on these pages are open so that you may more easily see their working, but when in use they should always be drawn taut.

The Mariner's Compass
Girl Scouts Compass - Images from the collection of Dr. Naomi Yavneh - Girl Scout Handbook 1916: Website designed in Memory of Eileen Alma Klos (1929-1974)

Boxing the compass consists in enumerating the point a beginning with north and working around the circle as. follows:


North by East
North, Northeast
Northeast by North
Northeast by East
Southeast by South
South, Southeast
South by East
South by West
South, Southwest
Southwest by South
Southwest by West
West, Southwest
East, Northeast
East by North
East by South
East, Southeast
Southeast by East
West by South
West by North
West, Northwest
Northwest by West
Northwest by North
North, Northwest
North by West

How To Read A Map Conventional Signs & Lettering Used in Field Sketching
Conventional Signs enable you to give information on a sketch or map in a simple manner which is easily understood. In addition to the sign it is often necessary to give an additional description, e. g., whether a railway is double or single, the width of roads, the nature of woods (oak, pine, etc.), etc.
Girl Scouts Maps - Images from the collection of Dr. Naomi Yavneh - Girl Scout Handbook 1916: Website designed in Memory of Eileen Alma Klos (1929-1974)

Whatever lettering is used should be legible and not interfere with the detail of the sketch. All lettering should be horizontal, except the names of roads, railways, rivers, and canals, which should be written along them.
Girl Scouts Maps 1 - Images from the collection of Dr. Naomi Yavneh - Girl Scout Handbook 1916: Website designed in Memory of Eileen Alma Klos (1929-1974)

Remember to fill in the North point on your sketch, as it is useless without it. Leave a margin of about an inch all round your sketch and state the scale that you have made your sketch, e. g.  two inches to the mile.

Girl Scouts Maps 2 - Images from the collection of Dr. Naomi Yavneh - Girl Scout Handbook 1916: Website designed in Memory of Eileen Alma Klos (1929-1974)

The Morse Code of Signals is not hard to learn but it requires much practice to "receive" even when the message is sent slowly. The old-fashioned instruments were 'fitted with a ribbon on which the dots and dashes were recorded, but all modern operators depend on the ear.
Girl Scouts Morse Code - Images from the collection of Dr. Naomi Yavneh - Girl Scout Handbook 1916: Website designed in Memory of Eileen Alma Klos (1929-1974)

Girl Scouts White Flags - Images from the collection of Dr. Naomi Yavneh - Girl Scout Handbook 1916: Website designed in Memory of Eileen Alma Klos (1929-1974)

4. Start me.
5. Have you anything for me?
9. Train order (or important military message) — give away.
13. Do you understand?

All sorts of changes may be made when the signals are committed to memory. Flags—up for a dot and side for a dash is one of the commonest and easiest for the beginner; or whistles—long and short blasts. Even the hand or a hat may be substituted; coughing, stamping, and scratching with the foot or a bit of stick. In fact endless changes may be invented for use with this Code.

Commands And Signals

For the use of the Girl Scouts the following list of words of command and whistle signals has been compiled.
'Fall in" (inline).
'Alert" (stand up smartly).
'Easy" (stand at ease).
'Sit easy" (sit or lie in ranks).
'Dismiss" (break off).
'Right" or "Left" (turn accordingly).
"Patrol right or patrol left" (patrol in line wheels). "Quick march" (step off with the left foot first). " Double" (run with arms down).
"Scouts' pace" (walk fifty paces and rim fifty paces alternately).
Whistle Signals
1. One long blast means " Silence," " Alert," " Listen for next signal."
2. A succession of long slow blasts means " Go out," "Get farther away, "or" Advance," "Extend," "Scatter."
3. A succession of quick short blasts means "Rally," " Close in," " Come together," " Fall in."
4. Alternate short and long blasts mean "Alarm," " Look out," "Be ready," "Man your alarm posts."
5. Three short blasts followed by one long one from the Captain calls up the patrol leaders.
Any whistle signal must be instantly obeyed at the double as fast as you can run, regardless of anything you may be doing.
By previous agreement many other signals may be arranged. It all depends on the exigencies to be met or the special order or information to be conveyed. But these few important signals should be strictly adhered to in all drills and exercises of Scouts. The compiler of the present volume think sit unwise to print the secret words so they are left for the patrol leaders and Captain to communicate verbally.

Hand Signals

" Advance " Swing the arm from rear to front, below "forward" the shoulder.
" Retire " Circle the arm above the head.
"halt" Raise the arm to full extension above head.
"double" The closed fist moved up and down between your shoulder and thigh.
"Quick Time" To change from the "Double" to the "Quick Time, " raise the hand to the shoulder.
"reinforce" Swing the arm from the rear to the front above the shoulder.
" Lie Down " With the open hand make two or three slight movements towards the ground.
"wheel" Extend your arm in line with your shoulder and make a circular movement in the direction required.
"incline" Extend your arm in line with your shoulder and make a turn with your body in the direction required.

Indian Signs
Burnt sticks are placed at the last camp-fire to tell the direction the Indians have gone from this spot. Two of them always make a V point and if the third is laid at the point of the [V=] it means north. Across the open end of the [=V] it means south. At one side |V it means east and V| would mean west. Now the above mark as made to indicate south would really mean southwest, if the stick which indicates direction were a little way to the west side—V¯. Northwest would be V_.
[V=] North
[=V] South
|V East
V| West
V¯ Southwest
V_ Northwest

Shaking a blanket: I want to talk to you.
Hold up a tree branch: I want to make peace.
Hold up a weapon (axe) means war : I am ready to fight.
Hold up a pole horizontally, with hands on it: I have
found something.


All Scouts should know how to shoot. By this we do not mean that you should go all day behind some big dog and try to kill the birds he finds for you, for that is the most useless form of shooting, all things considered, that can be devised. What we mean is that Scouts should know how to load and fire a gun or other firearm so as not to be at a loss for a means of defense should an emergency arise. It is one of the best means to " be prepared." Our preference for practice of this kind is a small rifle as it is less dangerous than any form of pistol and it affords excellent training for hand and eye. Avoid, however, the very high power modern firearms—that kind that "shoot to-day and kill next week," as there is too much danger of reaching some one that is out of sight. The same may be said of the automatic pistol which fills too large a circle with missiles of sudden death.
The bows and arrows of our ancestors are not to be despised as a means of training hand and eye. Archery is excellent practice for the eye, and good exercise for the muscles. It makes no noise, does not disturb game or warn the enemy. Scouts should know how to shoot with bows and arrows, and they can make them for themselves. The arrow, twenty-six inches long, must be as "straight as an. arrow" and tipped with a heavy head, with wings to keep it level. Ash wood is the best. The bow should be unstrung when not in use, or it will get bent. It is usually made your own height. Old gloves should be worn.


How to Find the Time by the Stars

Girl Scouts Constellations - Images from the collection of Dr. Naomi Yavneh - Girl Scout Handbook 1916: Website designed in Memory of Eileen Alma Klos (1929-1974)

Fig. 1 shows the stars around the northern vole of the heavens (Pole Star), and the Pointers of the Great Bear, which direct us to the Pole Star.

Girl Scouts Constellations - Images from the collection of Dr. Naomi Yavneh - Girl Scout Handbook 1916: Website designed in Memory of Eileen Alma Klos (1929-1974)

Since all stars appear to rise in the East and set in the West (which is really due to our earth turning round under them), the Pointers revolve once around the Pole Star in the opposite direction to the hands of a clock, once in twenty-four hours, or they swing through a quarter of a circle once in six hours; it is thus a simple matter after a little practice to judge what part of the imaginary circle they will pass through in an hour or less.

Assuming that all the stars rise four minutes earlier each night, and that the Pointers of the Plough are vertically above the Pole at midnight at the end of February, we may calculate the position of the points for any hour of the night.


The First Twenty Stars in Order of Brightness

Date of rising at 9 P.M. in the East.
1. Sirius, the Dog-starDec. 4
2. (Canopus, of the Ship)
3. (Alpha, of the Centaur)
4. Vega, of the LyreApril 1
5. Capella, of the CharioteerAug. 21
6. Arcturus, of the HerdsmanFeb. 20
7. Rigel, of OrionNov. 4
8. Procyon, the Little Dog-starNov. 27
9. (Achernar, of Eridanus)
10. (Beta, of the Centaur)
11. Altair, of the EagleMay 26
12. Betelgeux, of Orion's right shoulderOct. 30
13. (Alpha, of the Southern Cross)
14. Aldebaran, of the Bull's right eyeOct. 2
15. Pollux, of the TwinsNov. 4
16. Spica, of the VirginMar. 1
17. Antares, of the ScorpionMay 9
18. Fomalhaut, of the Southern FishAug. 27
19. Deneb, of the SwanApr. 22
20. Regulus, of the LionJan. 1
Then there is another set of stars representing a man wearing a sword and a belt, named "Orion." It is easily recognized by the three stars in line, which are the belt, and three smaller stars in another line, close by, which are the sword. Then two stars to right and left below the sword are his feet, while two more above the belt are his shoulders, and a group of three small stars between them make his head.
Now the great point about Orion is that by him you can always tell which way the North or Pole Star lies, and which way the South, as you can see him whether you are in the South or the North part of the world. The Great Bear can be seen only when you are in the North, and the Southern Cross when you are in the South.

If you draw a line by holding up your staff against the sky, from the center star of Orion's belt through the center of his head, and carry that line oh through two big stars till it comes to a third, that third one is the North or Pole Star.
Then if you draw a line the other way, beginning' again with the center star of the belt, and passing through the center star of the sword, your line goes through another group of stars shaped like the letter L. And if you go about as far again past L, you come to the South Pole, which unfortunately is not marked by any star. Roughly Orion's sword, the three small stars, points North and South.
East and West. Orion sets due west, and rises due east, so that, if you can catch him rising or setting, you know where the points of the compass are. Constellations, such as Orion, or the Bull, rise in the east, four minutes earlier each succeeding night—that is about half an hour earlier every Saturday.
Read The Song of the Fifty Stars by Arthur A. Carey, and try to find each star on a chart and then in the Heavens.

The Song of the Fifty Stars
Alpherat, Caph, and Algenib—three leading stars—
Move in front of all the host,
Turning from East to West,
Over the rounded dome;
And, near the head of the line, the Star of the North,
Polaris, turns his round and marks the hub of the wheel.
From Alpherat, North and East, Andromeda shoots,
Like a branch, with Mirach and Almach; while, far in the South,
Achernar shines, a beacon-light, at the "End of the River."
From Almach pass to Algol, of the changing face,
Called by the Arabs the Demon—
The Medusa of the Greeks.
But, not so fast! lest we forget the little changing star Whose place is West of Algol, farther South—
Mira, "the Wonderful," in Cetus or the Whale.

Algol leads to Mirfach, the brightest star of Perseus,
Who saved the captive Andromeda, daughter of Cepheus, "the Monarch,"
And royal Cassiopeia.
Then comes, surrounded by her sisters, gentle Alcyone,
The peaceful, daughter of the King who rules the tempestuous winds;
And, running in pursuit of these—the happy Pleiades—
Aldebaran, "the Follower," shines from the eye of the Bull.
Next comes Capella—the Mother Goat—watching her three Kids;
Her yellow light the color of our Sun.
Capella and Rigel move in line, and afterwards comes Nath,
Who marks the horn of the butting Bull.
Orion, the Hunter, on the Equator—the Giant of the Arabs—
Shines glorious North and South;
Bellatrix his left shoulder; Mintaka marks his belt.
After Mintaka comes Betelgeux, right shoulder of Orion;
While, between them in order, though farther North,
Is Zeta of Taurus, the Bull, who marks the other horn.
The next is Menkalinan, the shoulder of the Charioteer;
And, two degrees to the Eastward, the Circle of the Solstice passes by.
While, far down in the South,
Canopus gleams from the stern of Argo, the Ship.
Sirius, Star of the Greater Dog, brightest of all in the heavens,
Is followed by Castor, one of the Twins.
While Procyon—"Dog-in-advance"—the bright "forerunner" of Sirius,
Is followed by Pollux, the greater of the Twins.
Next Regulus comes in the Lion's heart, Denebola, the tip of his tail;
While, between them in order, Merak and Dubhe, the pointers,
Point to their aim in the North.
Two brilliant stars in the Southern Cross are Alpha and Beta Crucis,
The former a glorious double Sun, with a third star in attendance;
To see them ourselves we must travel far,
But we know that the glory is great in the South,
Although from us it is hidden.
Next, in the hand of the Virgin, the pointed Ear of Wheat—
Spica of the Romans—
Not far from the Autumn Equinox.
Now, back to the North we go, and look for Mizar and Alcor—
The Indian Squaw with the little papoose on her back,
And the tip of the tail of the Greater Bear
Where Benetnasch commands.
Now, again to the South, where the forefeet of the Centaur
Are marked by Beta and Alpha;—the former is known as Hadar—"the Ground";—
The latter sun is nearest to ours
And famous as Serk-t, toward whom the ancient Egyptians
Turned their temples in homage—
And, between them in order, the great and distant Arcturus
Shines out warm in the North.
Pulcherrima—most beautiful—must be sought by those who love her;
For she is modest and shy in the presence of the Great One.
Nearby is Gemma, the Bud,
In the beautiful Northern Crown.
Near the point where the "roof-tree" crosses the Zodiac Ring
Is a warm, red star in Scorpio.
This is Antares; while, in the North,
Etanin marks the Dragon's head.
Mu Sagitarii—closer still to the Solstice and Ecliptic—
Marks the northern part of the heavenly Archer's bow.
On summer evenings, high above our heads,
Vega shines with cool and brilliant light;
While, to the South and East, is Altair of the Eagle.
Nearby is the Northern Cross, or Cygnus,
Whom we call "the Swan,"
With Deneb Adige marking her outspread tail.
The nose of Pegasus, the soaring horse,
Shines out in the star Enif, or Epsilon of Pegasus—a triple star—
While Fomalhaut gleams in the South,
Guarding the Fish's Mouth.
Now Scheat and Markab, hand in hand, watch for the stragglers—
Bringing up the rear of all the Fifty Stars that have passed by.
The Sun Clock
When you have been able to find the North Star it will be very easy to set up a sun-dial. This device is not so valuable now as standard time is universally used. If you know the difference between "sun time" and standard time, the sun-dial can be referred to with a fair amount of accuracy and many people regard it as a curiosity.
Select a place where the sun shines all day and the ground is level. Set up a post or stake perpendicular and firm. At night go and "sight" a straight stick at the North Star and fasten it securely. This stick will now be parallel to the axis of the earth and its shadow will fall at the same line on any given hour no matter what season of the year it may be. At noon by the sun the shadows of the slanting stick and the upright one will coincide. This gives you the "sun noon" and the time by a standard watch or clock will tell you what correction to apply to your dial to convert its time into standard. Having once established the noon, or "no hour" mark the I, II, 1n, IV, V, and VI with stakes. Then calculate the correct sun time of v1 A.M. by your standard watch and stake out the morning hours. Halves and even quarters can be marked between if you wish.
A flower dial can be made by having your upright post a pretty tall one, say ten or even twenty feet, and planting rows of flowers like spokes of a wheel along the hour lines. It may be possible even to select such as are likely to open at or near the indicated hour. The entire semicircle of pegs will also make a pretty finish with tall ornamental foliage plants or shrubs

Make a sun-dial on the ground, mark the hours with stones or sticks, and see if it shows the time every day.

Among The Stars
Scouts must be able to find their way by night, but unless they practice it they are very apt to lose themselves. At night distances seem much greater, and land-marks are hard to see.
When patrolling in dark places, keep closer together, and in the dark or in the woods or caves keep in touch with each other by catching hold of the end of the next Scout's staff.
The staff is also useful for feeling the way.

Winter Evenings.
Cut out a quantity of little stars from stamp edging. Take an old umbrella, open, and stick the stars inside it, in the patterns of the chief constellations, then hold it overhead, and turn it once round for twenty-four hours, making the stars rise in the east.
The sun and the moon appear almost the same size as a rule. When we are a little nearer the sun, in winter, he looks a trifle larger than the moon.
To study the constellations, go out when the stars are bright, armed with a star map and a bicycle lamp to read it by, and spread a rug on the ground to lie on, or have a deck-chair, or hammock. Watch for meteors in August and November.
Let each girl try to draw a sketch map of a given constellation, from memory.

Now what about the gardens, for it goes without saying that Girl Scouts must have gardens. Getting right down and smelling the fresh soil is good for any one. It is mother earth's own breath. Watching the growth of our seeds is a veritable joy of joys. But what had we better plant? Why not let every one plant at least one tree? Never mind what kind of a tree. We will talk about that in a minute but decide at the outset that you will have at least one tree growing this year. Your trees will be a legacy to posterity, a gift from the Girl Scouts to their country. For in this United, States of ours we have cut down too many trees and our forests are fast following the buffalo. Nay, the bare face of the land has already begun to prove less attractive to the gentle rains of heaven and offers far too open a path to the raw blasts of winter. In many sections of our country the climate is drier and colder than it was before so much of the forest was destroyed. We are just waking up to this sad fact which it will take many years to rectify. So let us plant trees.
A tree is a tree anyway be it large or small. Some are useful food producers while others are of value for ornament or timber. All are good. There are no bad trees. So if you plant and raise a tree there can be no mistake. Whatever kind you select you will have done well. Fruit and nut trees will of course appeal most strongly to the young, especially to those with good healthy appetites. Many very young trees can be made to return some fruit in a comparatively short time by being budded or grafted. Scouts should learn how to bud and graft. It is not hard. Pears, plums, figs, and peaches all do well in the South as do also some apples and grapes. Peach trees though are in the main short lived. But trees of different kinds can be grown all over the country. Apples and pears are at their best in the North and many kinds are very long-lived trees. There are apple trees known to be a hundred years old still bearing. Sugar maple does well where there are long winters, and a wood of them—locally called a "sugar bush"— is a paying piece of property. Most fruit trees are best bought from dealers or obtained from your friends. They do not come "true," as it is called, from the seed. A Baldwin apple-seed will not produce a Baldwin apple. But as all the varieties are got by selecting from seedlings we can experiment if we wish. We are already saving apple-seeds for next year, and it will certainly be grand if we can get a new kind of apple and name it the Girl Scout.
We shall not make many suggestions about flowers. Any and all kinds of flowers will do in your gardens but do not neglect our own wild ones. Take the goldenrod for instance. The finest we have ever seen is grown in a city garden. Many other of our wild flowers will bear cultivating and some well repay the care necessary to "tame" them. The atamasco lily seems to be perfectly at home in the garden and so does the bloodroot. Violets of course would be favorites if our native species were not with one exception scentless. As any gardener's book will tell you all about our "tame" flowers it is not necessary to say much about them. designed in Memory Juliette Gordon Low, Girl Scouts USA Founder and Eileen Alma Klos (1929-1974) Girl Scout Leader: Mother of Eight

In Memory of Eileen Alma Klos (1929-1974)
Girl Scout Leader: Mother of Eight is donated to Loyola University
for Undergraduate Research is donated to USF  for Undergraduate Research

In Memory of Eileen Alma Klos 
Girl Scout Leader: Mother of Eight

How Girls Can Help Their Country


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